Activation of naïve B lymphocytes via CD81, a pathogenetic mechanism for hepatitis C virus-associated B lymphocyte disorders.
ABSTRACT Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV), a leading cause of chronic liver diseases, can associate with B lymphocyte proliferative disorders, such as mixed cryoglobulinemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The major envelope protein of HCV (HCV-E2) binds, with high affinity CD81, a tetraspanin expressed on several cell types. Here, we show that engagement of CD81 on human B cells by a combination of HCV-E2 and an anti-CD81 mAb triggers the JNK pathway and leads to the preferential proliferation of the naïve (CD27-) B cell subset. In parallel, we have found that B lymphocytes from the great majority of chronic hepatitis C patients are activated and that naïve cells display a higher level of activation markers than memory (CD27+) B lymphocytes. Moreover, eradication of HCV infection by IFN therapy is associated with normalization of the activation-markers expression. We propose that CD81-mediated activation of B cells in vitro recapitulates the effects of HCV binding to B cell CD81 in vivo and that polyclonal proliferation of naïve B lymphocytes is a key initiating factor for the development of the HCV-associated B lymphocyte disorders.
SourceAvailable from: Chunqiu Hao[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: CD100, also known as Sema4D, is a member of the semaphorin family and has important regulatory functions that promote immune cell activation and responses. The role of CD100 expression on B cells in immune regulation during chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains unclear. We longitudinally investigated the altered expression of CD100, its receptor CD72, and other activation markers CD69 and CD86 on B cells in 20 chronic HCV-infected patients before and after treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha (Peg-IFN-α) and ribavirin (RBV) by flow cytometry. The frequency of CD5+ B cells as well as the expression levels of CD100, CD69 and CD86 was significantly increased in chronic HCV patients and returned to normal in patients with sustained virological response after discontinuation of IFN-α/RBV therapy. Upon IFN-α treatment, CD100 expression on B cells and the two subsets was further up-regulated in patients who achieved early virological response, and this was confirmed by in vitro experiments. Moreover, the increased CD100 expression via IFN-α was inversely correlated with the decline of the HCV-RNA titer during early-phase treatment. Peripheral B cells show an activated phenotype during chronic HCV infection. Moreover, IFN-α therapy facilitates the reversion of disrupted B cell homeostasis, and up-regulated expression of CD100 may be indirectly related to HCV clearance.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113338. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113338 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: B cells have long been regarded as simple antibody production units, but are now becoming known as key players in both adaptive and innate immune responses. However, several bacteria, viruses and parasites have evolved the ability to manipulate B cell functions to modulate immune responses. Pathogens can affect B cells indirectly, by attacking innate immune cells and altering the cytokine environment, and can also target B cells directly, impairing B cell-mediated immune responses. In this Review, we provide a summary of recent advances in elucidating direct B cell-pathogen interactions and highlight how targeting this specific cell population benefits different pathogens.Nature Reviews Microbiology 02/2015; 13(3). DOI:10.1038/nrmicro3415 · 23.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: HCV chronic infection is characterized by possible development of both hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations. The infection by this both hepatotropic and lymphotropic virus is responsible for polyoligoclonal B-lymphocyte expansion, leading to several immune-mediated disorders. Mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome that in some cases may evolve to frank B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is the prototype of HCV-driven autoimmune and lymphoproliferative disorders. The HCV oncogenic potential has been suggested by several clinicoepidemiological and laboratory studies; it includes hepatocellular carcinoma, B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and papillary thyroid cancer. The definition HCV syndrome refers to the complex of HCV-driven diseases; these latter are characterized by heterogeneous geographical distribution, suggesting a role of other important genetic and/or environmental cofactors. The natural history of HCV syndrome is the result of a multifactorial and multistep pathogenetic process, which may evolve from mild manifestations to systemic autoimmune disorders, and less frequently to malignant neoplasias. The present updated review analyzes the clinical and pathogenetic aspects of the main HCV-associated diseases.Expert Review of Clinical Immunology 01/2015; 11(1):15-31. DOI:10.1586/1744666X.2015.997214 · 3.34 Impact Factor