The anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody assay in a province-wide practice: accurate in identifying cases of Crohn's disease and predicting inflammatory disease.
ABSTRACT To determine the utility of the anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) ELISA test developed in Manitoba in 2001 in a population-wide sample referred from physicians across Manitoba in their investigation of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.
Patients whose serum was referred for ASCA testing in 2001 and 2002 were eligible for the present study. ELISA was performed by a technologist, blind to patient diagnoses. A single investigator contacted physicians to facilitate chart review. Data collected included demographics, final diagnoses and tests used to substantiate the final diagnosis.
Of 482 subjects identified, 410 charts were available for review and 29 of those were unavailable for follow-up or had incomplete charts. The present study population included Crohn's disease (CD, n=114), ulcerative colitis (n=74), indeterminate colitis (n=31), celiac disease (n=9), irritable bowel syndrome (n=75), other diagnoses (n=33) and no disease (n=45). ASCA had a sensitivity of 37% (95% CI 27.8 to 46.8) and specificity of 97% (95% CI 93.8 to 98.6) for diagnosing CD and an odds ratio for a diagnosis of CD of 18.4 (95% CI 8.2 to 41.3). The 47 ASCA-positive patients included the following diagnoses: CD=39, ulcerative colitis=3, indeterminate colitis=1, celiac disease=3 and no disease=1. The likelihood of having an inflammatory disease if ASCA is positive was nearly 40-fold.
A positive ASCA test using this assay nearly clinches a diagnosis of some form of inflammatory intestinal disease, which is highly likely to be CD. In symptomatic patients, a positive ASCA test should encourage the clinician to pursue further investigations.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Predictors of complicated Crohn's disease (CD), defined as stricturing or penetrating behaviour, and surgery have largely been derived from referral centre populations. AIM: To investigate whether serological markers, susceptibility genes or psychological characteristics are associated with complicated CD or surgery in a population-based cohort. METHODS: One hundred and eighty-two members of the Manitoba IBD Cohort with CD phenotyped using the Montreal classification underwent genetic and serological analysis at enrolment and after 5 years. One hundred and twenty-seven had paired sera at baseline and 5 years later and their data were used to predict outcomes at a median of 9.3 years. Serological analysis consisted of a seven antibody panel, and DNA was tested for CD-associated NOD2 variants (rs2066845,rs2076756,rs2066847), ATG16L1 (rs3828309, rs2241880) and IL23R (rs11465804). Psychological characteristics were assessed using semi-structured interviews and validated survey measures. RESULTS: Sixty-five per cent had complicated CD and 42% underwent surgery. Multivariate analysis indicated that only ASCA IgG-positive serology was predictive of stricturing/penetrating behaviour (OR = 3.01; 95% CI: 1.28-7.09; P = 0.01) and ileal CD (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.07-4.54, P = 0.03). Complicated CD behaviour was strongly associated with surgery (OR = 5.6; 95% CI: 2.43-12.91; P < 0.0001), whereas in multivariate analysis, only ASCA IgG was associated (OR = 2.66; 95% CI, 1.40-5.06, P = 0.003). ASCA titre results were similar at baseline and follow-up. Psychological characteristics were not significantly associated with disease behaviour, serological profile or genotype. CONCLUSIONS: ASCA IgG at baseline was significantly associated with stricturing/penetrating disease at 9-10 years from diagnosis. Stricturing/penetrating disease was significantly associated with surgery. In a model including serology, the genotypes assessed did not significantly associate with complicated disease or surgery.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 06/2013; 38(3). DOI:10.1111/apt.12368 · 4.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is traditionally based on a combination of clinical, endoscopic, histological, and radiological criteria. However, further testing is needed in cases of diagnostic uncertainty and in predicting disease course. This systematic review focuses on the potential for 10 serological antibodies to fill these roles: pANCA, ASCA, anti-OmpC, anti-CBir1, anti-I2, ALCA, ACCA, AMCA, anti-L, and anti-C. We discuss their prevalence in IBD and health; their role in disease diagnosis and risk stratification; their stability over time; their presence in unaffected relatives; their association with genetic variants; and differences across ethnic groups. Serological antibodies have some role in primary diagnosis and in differentiating between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In indeterminate colitis, preoperative measurement of serological antibodies can help to predict the likelihood of complications among patients undergoing pouch surgery. The combined presence and magnitude of a large panel of antibodies appear to be of value in predicting disease progression. There is currently insufficient evidence to recommend the use of antibody testing to predict responses to treatment or surgery in patients with IBD.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 01/2012; 18(7):1340-55. DOI:10.1002/ibd.21903 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) serology testing is often used in patients with indeterminate colitis (IC) to help distinguish between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). We investigated the performance of serology testing in predicting future diagnosis in this setting. This was an observational study of individuals with IC at a single center who underwent IBD serology testing [anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA), perinuclear anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), and anti-outer membrane porin C antibody (anti-OmpC)] and had at least 12 months follow-up from the time of serology test results. A total of 117 individuals with IC and with 1-year follow-up data were enrolled. All IC patients had endoscopic and histologic evidence of colitis at enrollment. One year after serology testing, 58 (50%) individuals with IC were diagnosed with UC, 49 (42%) with CD, and 10 (9%) remained labeled with IC. The sensitivity/specificity of an initial positive pANCA for a subsequent diagnosis of UC was 78%/44%. For ASCA and anti-OmpC, the results were 18%/84% and 27%/75%, respectively, for a subsequent diagnosis of CD. A positive pANCA test was associated with a likelihood ratio (LR) of 1.4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-1.8] for a subsequent diagnosis of UC at 1 year. Neither positive ASCA (LR 1.1; 95% CI, 0.5-2.5) nor anti-OmpC (LR 1.1; 95% CI, 0.6-2.0) was associated with a subsequent diagnosis of CD in patients with IC. The disease phenotype in the majority of individuals initially labeled with IC evolved to be more consistent with either UC or CD on follow-up. pANCA, ASCA, and anti-OmpC, individually, were of limited utility in predicting a patient's subsequent disease phenotype.Journal of clinical gastroenterology 01/2014; 48(4). DOI:10.1097/MCG.0000000000000083 · 3.19 Impact Factor