Article

CCR2 modulates inflammatory and metabolic effects of high-fat feeding.

Department of Medicine, Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032, USA.
Journal of Clinical Investigation (Impact Factor: 13.77). 02/2006; 116(1):115-24. DOI: 10.1172/JCI24335
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The C-C motif chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) regulates monocyte and macrophage recruitment and is necessary for macrophage-dependent inflammatory responses and the development of atherosclerosis. Although adipose tissue expression and circulating concentrations of CCL2 (also known as MCP1), a high-affinity ligand for CCR2, are elevated in obesity, the role of CCR2 in metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation associated with obesity, has not been studied. To determine what role CCR2 plays in the development of metabolic phenotypes, we studied the effects of Ccr2 genotype on the development of obesity and its associated phenotypes. Genetic deficiency in Ccr2 reduced food intake and attenuated the development of obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. In obese mice matched for adiposity, Ccr2 deficiency reduced macrophage content and the inflammatory profile of adipose tissue, increased adiponectin expression, ameliorated hepatic steatosis, and improved systemic glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In mice with established obesity, short-term treatment with a pharmacological antagonist of CCR2 lowered macrophage content of adipose tissue and improved insulin sensitivity without significantly altering body mass or improving hepatic steatosis. These data suggest that CCR2 influences the development of obesity and associated adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance and plays a role in the maintenance of adipose tissue macrophages and insulin resistance once obesity and its metabolic consequences are established.

0 Followers
 · 
116 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to decline, concomitant with inflammation and classical activation of AT macrophages. In this study, we show that CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophil accumulation in AT. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice, the increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) AT is sustained and even amplified during obesity. Interestingly, a significant portion of eosinophils is found in CLSs in AT of obese CCR2(-/-) mice, which is the first time eosinophils have been shown to localize to these inflammatory hot spots. CCR2(-/-) bone marrow precursors displayed increased expression of various key eosinophil genes during in vitro differentiation to eosinophils, suggesting a potentially altered eosinophil phenotype in the absence of CCR2. In addition, the proportion of eosinophils in AT positively correlated with local expression of Il5, a potent eosinophil stimulator. The increase in eosinophils in CCR2(-/-) mice was detected in all white fat pads analyzed and in the peritoneal cavity but not in bone marrow, blood, spleen, or liver. In AT of CCR2(-/-) mice, an increased eosinophil number positively correlated with M2-like macrophages, expression of the Treg marker Foxp3, and type 2 cytokines, Il4, Il5, and Il13. This is the first study to link CCR2 function with regulation of AT eosinophil accumulation. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.
    Journal of leukocyte biology 05/2015; DOI:10.1189/jlb.3HI0115-018R · 4.99 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite the growing interest in deciphering the causes and consequences of obesity-related disorders, the mechanisms linking fat intake to bone behaviour remain unclear. Since bone fractures are widely associated with increased morbidity and mortality, most notably in elderly and obese people, bone health has become a major social and economic issue. Consistently, public health system guidelines have encouraged low-fat diets in order to reduce associated complications. However, from a bone point of view, mechanisms linking fat intake to bone alteration remain quite controversial. Thus, after more than a decade of dedicated studies, this timely review offers a comprehensive overview of the relationships between bone and fatty acids. Using clinical evidences as a starting-point to more complex molecular elucidation, this work highlights the complexity of the system and reveals that bone alteration that cannot be solved simply by taking ω-3 pills. Fatty acid effects on bone metabolism can be both direct and indirect and require integrated investigations. Furthermore, even at the level of a single cell, one fatty acid is able to trigger several different independent pathways (receptors, metabolites…) which may all have a say in the final cellular metabolic response. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Progress in lipid research 03/2015; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.plipres.2015.03.001 · 12.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatic steatosis is the accumulation of excess fat in the liver. Recently, hepatic steatosis has become more important because it occurs in the patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hyperlipidemia and is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and insulin resistance. C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) inhibitor has been reported to improve inflammation and glucose intolerance in diabetes, but its mechanisms remained unknown in hepatic steatosis. We examined whether CCR2 inhibitor improves ER stress-induced hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic mice. In this study, db/db and db/m (n = 9) mice were fed CCR2 inhibitor (2 mg/kg/day) for 9 weeks. In diabetic mice, CCR2 inhibitor decreased plasma and hepatic triglycerides levels and improved insulin sensitivity. Moreover, CCR2 inhibitor treatment decreased ER stress markers (e.g., BiP, ATF4, CHOP, and XBP-1) and inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα, IL-6, and MCP-1) while increasing markers of mitochondrial biogenesis (e.g., PGC-1α, Tfam, and COX1) in the liver. We suggest that CCR2 inhibitor may ameliorate hepatic steatosis by reducing ER stress and inflammation in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(3):e0120711. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120711 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
2 Downloads
Available from