Gender-based differences of percutaneous coronary intervention in the drug-eluting stent era.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to provide insights into percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in women in the United States by evaluating gender-based PCI-practice patterns and outcomes.
Limited "real world" contemporary data exist on how the introduction of DES has impacted PCI in women.
Patients (359 women, 807 men) with de novo coronary artery disease having PCI (1,166) were evaluated during the first year, since the introduction of DES in the United States market (May 1, 2003 to April 30, 2004). Women were more likely to be older, hypertensive, obese, diabetic, and have heart failure. Men were more likely to be smokers and have more vessels with obstructive coronary artery disease. PCI procedural success rates, number of vessels attempted, percentage DES utilization, and in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE; death, new myocardial infarction, urgent revascularization) were similar for both genders. However, women had significantly higher unadjusted mortality (3.9% versus 1.6%, P = 0.01), cumulative vascular complications (12.0% versus 4.2%, P < 0.0001), and renal failure (2.5% versus 0.7%, P = 0.01). After adjustment for confounding variables, mortality was similar between genders, but a significant association with vascular complications and trend toward higher rates of renal failure persisted in women.
In this study of the modern era of PCI with DES utilization, in-hospital MACE is similar between men and women. However, the differences in baseline comorbidities and the proclivity for vascular and renal complications highlight the need for further investigation and improvements to optimize outcomes of PCI in women.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate potential gender differences in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease (CVD) management, and prognosis in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). A systematic literature search was performed through Medline using pre-specified keywords. An additional search was performed, focusing specifically on randomized controlled clinical trials in relation to therapeutic intervention and prognosis. In total, 92 relevant articles were found. Women with CVD tended to have more hypertension and diabetes at the time of presentation, whereas men were more likely to smoke. Coronary angiography and revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention were performed more often in men. Women were at a greater risk of short-term mortality and complications after revascularization. Interestingly, women under 40 years presenting with ACS were at highest risk of cardiovascular death compared with men of the same age, irrespective of risk factors. This disadvantage disappeared in older age. The long-term mortality risk of ACS was similar in men and women, and even in favor of women. Mortality rates are higher among young women with ACS, but this difference tends to disappear with age, and long-term prognosis is even better among older women.World journal of cardiology. 02/2012; 4(2):36-47.