Gender-based differences of percutaneous coronary intervention in the drug-eluting stent era.
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to provide insights into percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in women in the United States by evaluating gender-based PCI-practice patterns and outcomes.
Limited "real world" contemporary data exist on how the introduction of DES has impacted PCI in women.
Patients (359 women, 807 men) with de novo coronary artery disease having PCI (1,166) were evaluated during the first year, since the introduction of DES in the United States market (May 1, 2003 to April 30, 2004). Women were more likely to be older, hypertensive, obese, diabetic, and have heart failure. Men were more likely to be smokers and have more vessels with obstructive coronary artery disease. PCI procedural success rates, number of vessels attempted, percentage DES utilization, and in-hospital major adverse cardiac events (MACE; death, new myocardial infarction, urgent revascularization) were similar for both genders. However, women had significantly higher unadjusted mortality (3.9% versus 1.6%, P = 0.01), cumulative vascular complications (12.0% versus 4.2%, P < 0.0001), and renal failure (2.5% versus 0.7%, P = 0.01). After adjustment for confounding variables, mortality was similar between genders, but a significant association with vascular complications and trend toward higher rates of renal failure persisted in women.
In this study of the modern era of PCI with DES utilization, in-hospital MACE is similar between men and women. However, the differences in baseline comorbidities and the proclivity for vascular and renal complications highlight the need for further investigation and improvements to optimize outcomes of PCI in women.
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ABSTRACT: The goal of this intravascular ultrasound investigation was to provide a more detailed morphological analysis of the local biological effects of the implantation of a sirolimus-eluting stent compared with an uncoated stent. In the RAVEL trial, 238 patients with single de novo lesions were randomized to receive either an 18-mm sirolimus-eluting stent (Bx VELOCITY stent, Cordis) or an uncoated stent (Bx VELOCITY stent). In a subset of 95 patients (sirolimus-eluting stent=48, uncoated stent=47), motorized intravascular ultrasound pullback (0.5 mm/s) was performed at a 6-month follow-up. Stent volumes, total vessel volumes, and plaque-behind-stent volumes were comparable. However, the difference in neointimal hyperplasia (2+/-5 versus 37+/-28 mm3) and percent of volume obstruction (1+/-3% versus 29+/-20%) at 6 months between the 2 groups was highly significant (P<0.001), emphasizing the nearly complete abolition of the proliferative process inside the drug-eluting stent. Analysis of the proximal and distal edge volumes showed no significant difference between the 2 groups in external elastic membrane or lumen and plaque volume at the proximal and distal edges. There was also no evidence of intrastent thrombosis or persisting dissection at the stent edges. Although there was a higher incidence of incomplete stent apposition in the sirolimus group compared with the uncoated stent group (P<0.05), it was not associated with any adverse clinical events at 1 year. Sirolimus-eluting stents are effective in preventing neointimal hyperplasia without creating edge effect and without affecting the plaque burden behind the struts.Circulation 08/2002; 106(7):798-803. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to determine whether women undergoing contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain at increased risk in comparison with men and whether the outcomes in women have improved. Previous studies have shown that women treated with coronary angioplasty have a higher incidence of procedural morbidity and mortality than men. Gender differences in wave 1 of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Dynamic registry were evaluated. Baseline characteristics and outcomes in women in the Dynamic registry were compared with those in women in the 1985-1986 and 1993-1994 NHLBI Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty (PTCA) registries. Women were older with a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, congestive heart failure, unstable angina and single vessel disease in comparison with men. Although procedural success and in-hospital death (2.2% vs. 1.3%), myocardial infarction (MI) (2.3% vs. 3.0%) and coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) (1.3% vs. 1.4%) were similar in women and men, respectively, one-year mortality (6.5% vs. 4.3%, p = 0.02) and combined end point of death/MI/CABG (18.3% vs. 14.4%, p = 0.03) were higher in women than in men. After controlling for other factors, gender was not a significant predictor of death or death plus MI at one year. Despite a higher risk profile in women in the Dynamic registry in comparison with women in the 1985-1986 NHLBI PTCA registry, in-hospital death/MI/CABG was lower (6.0% vs. 11.6%, p < 0.001). Despite persistent high-risk characteristics in women, gender differences in outcomes in patients undergoing contemporary PCI have decreased, and outcomes in women have improved.Journal of the American College of Cardiology 05/2002; 39(10):1608-14. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During the past decade, an overall theme has emerged, validating the exploration of gender-based differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) as a basis for clinical strategies to improve outcomes for women. Underrepresentation of women in most of CHD and lack of gender-specific reporting in many clinical trials continue to limit the available knowledge and evidence-based medicine needed to devise optimal managements for women with CHD. Control of conventional coronary risk factors provides comparable cardioprotection for men and women. Current evidence fails to show cardiac protection from menopausal hormone therapy. Clinical presentations of coronary heart disease (CHD) and management strategies differ between the sexes. Underutilization of proven beneficial therapies is a contributor to less-favorable outcomes in women. The contemporary increased application of appropriate diagnostic, therapeutic, and interventional managements has favorably altered the prognosis for women, particularly when the data are adjusted for baseline characteristics. Better education of women during office visits, earlier and more aggressive control of coronary risk factors, and a greater index of suspicion regarding chest pain and its appropriate evaluation may help to reverse the trend of late referral and late intervention. Research indicates that behavioral changes on the part of women and reshaping of practice patterns by their health care providers may dramatically reduce the number of women disabled and killed by CHD each year.Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 01/2003; 46(3):199-229. · 4.00 Impact Factor