Exploration of global gene expression in human liver steatosis by high-density oligonucleotide microarray.
ABSTRACT Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying fatty liver disease (FLD) in humans is of major importance. We used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays (22.3 K) to assess the mechanisms responsible for the development of human liver steatosis. We compared global gene expression in normal (n=9) and steatotic (n=9) livers without histological signs of inflammation or fibrosis. A total of 34 additional human samples including normal (n=11), steatosis (n=11), HCV-related steatosis (n=4) or steatohepatitis associated with alcohol consumption (n=4) or obesity (n=4) were used for immunohistochemistry or quantitative real-time PCR studies. With unsupervised classification (no gene selection), all steatotic liver samples clustered together. Using step-down maxT multiple testing procedure for controlling the Family-Wise Error-Rate at level 5%, 110 cDNAs (100 over- and 10 underexpressed) were found to be differentially expressed in steatotic and normal livers. Of them were genes involved in mitochondrial phosphorylative and oxidative metabolism. The mean ratio of mitochondrial DNA to nuclear DNA content was higher in liver steatosis compared to normal liver biopsies (1.12+/-0.14 vs 0.67+/-0.10; P=0.01). An increased expression of genes involved in inflammation (IL-1R family, TGFB) was also observed and confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR or immunochemistry. In steatohepatitis, an increase of the protein expression of mitochondrial antigens, IL-1R1, IGF2 and TGFB1 was also observed, interleukin 1 receptor being always strongly expressed in steatohepatitis linked to alcohol or obesity. In conclusion, mitochondrial alterations play a major role in the development of steatosis per se. Activation of inflammatory pathways is present at a very early stage of steatosis, even if no morphological sign of inflammation is observed.
SourceAvailable from: Celine Henry[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic steatosis is a liver pathology characterized by fat accumulation and severe metabolic alterations involving early mitochondrial impairment and late hepatocyte cell death. However, mitochondrial dysfunction mechanisms remain elusive. Using four models of nonalcoholic steatosis, i.e., livers from patients with fatty liver disease, ob/ob mice, mice fed a high‐fat diet, and in vitro models of lipotoxicity, we show that outer mitochondrial membrane permeability is altered and identified a posttranslational modification of voltage‐dependent anion channel (VDAC), a membrane channel and NADH oxidase, as a cause of early mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, in nonalcoholic steatosis VDAC exhibits reduced threonine phosphorylation, which increases the influx of water and calcium into mitochondria, sensitizes the organelle to matrix swelling, depolarization, and cytochrome c release without inducing cell death. This also amplifies VDAC enzymatic and channel activities regulation by calcium and modifies its interaction with proteic partners. Moreover, lipid accumulation triggers a rapid lack of VDAC phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3). Pharmacological and genetic manipulations proved GSK3 to be responsible for VDAC phosphorylation in normal cells. Notably, VDAC phosphorylation level correlated with steatosis severity in patients. Conclusion: VDAC acts as an early sensor of lipid toxicity and its GSK3‐mediated phosphorylation status controls outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization in hepatosteatosis. (HEPATOLOGY 2013)Hepatology 01/2013; 57(1). DOI:10.1002/hep.25967 · 11.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is today considered the most common form of chronic liver disease, affecting a high proportion of the population worldwide. NAFLD encompasses a large spectrum of liver damage, ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. Obesity, hyperglycemia, type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia are the most important risk factors. The pathogenesis of NAFLD and its progression to fibrosis and chronic liver disease is still unknown. Accumulating evidence indicates that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the physiopathology of NAFLD, although the mechanisms underlying this dysfunction are still unclear. Oxidative stress is considered an important factor in producing lethal hepatocyte injury associated with NAFLD. Mitochondrial respiratory chain is the main subcellular source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may damage mitochondrial proteins, lipids and mitochondrial DNA. Cardiolipin, a phospholipid located at the level of the inner mitochondrial membrane, plays an important role in several reactions and processes involved in mitochondrial bioenergetics as well as in mitochondrial dependent steps of apoptosis. This phospholipid is particularly susceptible to ROS attack. Cardiolipin peroxidation has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in multiple tissues in several physiopathological conditions, including NAFLD. In this review, we focus on the potential roles played by oxidative stress and cardiolipin alterations in mitochondrial dysfunction associated with NAFLD.World Journal of Gastroenterology 10/2014; 20(39):14205-14218. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v20.i39.14205 · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: PTEN loss contributes to the development of liver diseases including hepatic steatosis and both hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CC). The factors that influence the penetrance of these conditions are unclear. We explored the influence of sustained hypoxia signaling through co-deletion of Pten and Vhl in a murine model. We used a CreER-linked Keratin 18 mouse model to conditionally delete Pten, Vhl or both in somatic cells of adult mice, evaluating the resultant tumors by histology and gene expression microarray. Existing sets of gene expression data for human HCC and CC were examined for pathways related to those observed in the murine tumors, and a cohort of human CC samples was evaluated for relationships between HIF-1α expression and clinical outcomes. Both Pten deletion genotypes developed liver tumors, but with differing phenotypes. Pten deletion alone led to large hepatic tumors with widespread hepatosteatosis. Co-deletion of Pten and Vhl with the Keratin 18 promoter resulted in reduced steatosis and a reduced tumor burden that was characterized by a trabecular architecture similar to CC. Genes associated with hepatic steatosis were coordinately expressed in the human HCC dataset, while genes involved in hypoxia response were upregulated in tumors from the human CC dataset. HIF-1α expression and overall survival were examined in an independent cohort of human CC tumors with no statistical differences uncovered. Pten deletion in Keratin 18 expressing cells leads to aggressive tumor formation and widespread steatosis in mouse livers. Co-deletion of Vhl and Pten results in lower tumor burden with gene expression profiling suggesting a switch from a profile of lipid deposition to an expression profile more consistent with upregulation of the hypoxia response pathway. A relationship between tumor hypoxia signaling and altered hepatic steatotic response suggests that competing influences may alter tumor phenotypes.02/2015; 5:61-71. DOI:10.2147/GICTT.S72274