Article

Cellular logic with orthogonal ribosomes. J Am Chem Soc

Mrc Harwell, Oxford, England, United Kingdom
Journal of the American Chemical Society (Impact Factor: 11.44). 01/2006; 127(50):17584-5. DOI: 10.1021/ja055338d
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The creation and use of unnatural molecules to control cellular function is a long standing goal of the chemical community, but in general, these efforts have been directed at finding molecules to inhibit or activate a particular molecular target or function, or to elicit a particular phenotype. Here we show that multiple unnatural molecules (orthogonal ribosomes) can be used combinatorially, in a single cell, to program Boolean logic functions. These experiments show how attention to the molecular specificity of noncovalent interactions between unnatural macromolecules allows the synthesis of complex function from the "bottom-up" in living matter.

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Available from: Oliver Rackham, Aug 23, 2015
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    • "However, because orthogonal ribosomes (O-ribosomes) are not constrained by any requirement to translate the proteome, they can be extensively mutated to alter and explore their properties. This property has been used to perform large-scale mutagenesis of the rRNA residues that make up the interface between large and small ribosomal subunits [40] and also to build synthetic gene regulatory circuits controlled at the level of translation [41] [42] [43]. "
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    • "He first developed a genetic selection through which we could select for or against the expression of a single gene fusion and then showed that he could use this to select mRNA leader sequences, containing alternative Shine Dalgarno sequences (Hui and de Boer, 1987; Rackham and Chin, 2005a), that were not recognized by the endogenous ribosome, but are specifically and efficiently read by a new orthogonal ribosome (Rackham and Chin, 2005a) (Figure 2B). Oliver Rackham began to take advantage of this new nonessential orthogonal ribosome and showed that it is possible to use different orthogonal ribosomes to produce Boolean logic in gene expression (Rackham and Chin, 2005b). More recently, Wenlin An has shown that it is possible to select genetic elements that direct orthogonal transcription by T7 RNAP and orthogonal translation by an orthogonal ribosome (An and Chin, 2009). "
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    • "Originally pioneered by de Boer and colleagues [85], anti-Shine-Dalgarno sequences can be engineered into 16S ribosomal RNA to enable a group of ribosomes (orthogonal from the host) to translate specific mRNA populations. This has shown advantages for performing logic operations [85] [86], synthesizing proteins with nonnatural amino acids, such as p-benzoyl-(L)-phenylalanine [87], and efficiently incorporating quadruplet codons [88]. Orthogonal ribosomes will provide useful tools in programming synthetic function and expanding the genetic code to make nonnatural products for biotechnology. "
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