Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders in a total population of children: Clinical assessment and background

Department of Neuroscience, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
Acta Paediatrica (Impact Factor: 1.67). 12/2005; 94(11):1608-14. DOI: 10.1080/08035250510043879
Source: PubMed


To describe the symptoms, onset, heredity, pre-/perinatal events and socio-economic status in Tourette syndrome (TS) and other tic disorders.
From a total population of 4479 children, 25 (0.6%) with TS, 58 (1.3%) with chronic motor/vocal tics (CMVT) and 214 (4.8%) with transient tics (TT) in the last year were found. A three-stage procedure was used: tic screening, telephone interview and clinical assessment. The TS group was compared with 25 children with TT and 25 controls without tics.
The mean age of the first symptoms of TS was significantly lower than the onset of CMVT. All except one with TS had contact with medical services. The tics of children with TS were significantly more severe than the tics of others. Younger age of onset of TS indicated more severe tics. Parents and siblings of children with TS had an increased prevalence of tic disorders, obsessive-compulsive behaviour (OCD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression. Eighty per cent had a first-degree relative with a psychiatric disorder. A non-significant increase with regards to reduced optimality score in the pre-, peri- or neonatal periods was found in children with TS compared to controls. No differences were found concerning socio-economic status.
Almost all children from a total population with TS have sought help from medical services. An increased prevalence of tics, OCD, depression or ADHD was found in the parents/siblings of children with TS, which draws attention to the importance of thorough investigation of family members.

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Available from: Anne-Liis von Knorring, Oct 05, 2014
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    • "In Table  2, the majority of the results for demographic factors of parents, including age, education, socioeconomic status, and marital status, revealed no significant association with the onset of TS, or the presence of TS comorbidity such as ADHD [11,13,14,17,20]. There was only one small study (25 cases and 25 controls) in which the mother’s age in the group with TS was significantly younger than the control group (20 ± 1.4 versus 23 ± 3.4, "
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    ABSTRACT: Tourette Syndrome (TS) appears to be an inherited disorder, although genetic abnormalities have been identified in less than 1 % of patients, and the mode of inheritance is uncertain. Many studies have investigated environmental factors that might contribute to the onset and severity of tics and associated comorbidities such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). A systematic review and qualitative analysis were performed to provide a broad view of the association between pre- and perinatal factors and TS. The Medline, Embase and PsycINFO databases were searched using terms specific to Tourette's syndrome and keywords such as "pregnancy", "prenatal", "perinatal", "birth" and "neonatal". Studies were limited to studies on human subjects published in English or French through October 2012. 22 studies were included. Studies were of limited methodological quality, with most samples derived from specialty clinics, and most exposures ascertained retrospectively. The majority of the results for demographic factors of parents, including age, education, socioeconomic status, and marital status, revealed no significant association with the onset of TS, or the presence of comorbidity. Many factors were reported to be significantly associated with the onset of TS, the presence of comorbidity and symptom severity, but the most consistently reported factors were maternal smoking and low birth weight. There are few studies evaluating the relationship between pre and perinatal events and TS, and existing studies have major limitations, including the use of clinic rather than epidemiologically derived samples, retrospective data collection on pre and perinatal events and multiple hypothesis testing without appropriate statistical correction. The mechanism by which prenatal and perinatal adversities could lead to TS onset or symptom severity is unknown, but may be related to changes in the dopaminergic system as a result of early brain injury.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 01/2014; 14(1):53. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-14-53 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    • "TS is often accompanied by comorbidities such as obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), depression and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [5,6]. The cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit plays an important role in the pathophysiology of TS. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by motor and phonic tics. Deficient motor inhibition underlying tics is one of the main hypotheses in its pathophysiology. Therefore the question arises whether this supposed deficient motor inhibition affects also voluntary movements. Despite severe motor tics, different personalities who suffer from Tourette perform successfully as neurosurgeon, pilot or professional basketball player. Methods For the investigation of fine motor skills we conducted a motor performance test battery in an adult Tourette sample and an age matched group of healthy controls. Results The Tourette patients showed a significant lower performance in the categories steadiness of both hands and aiming of the right hand in comparison to the healthy controls. A comparison of patients’ subgroup without comorbidities or medication and healthy controls revealed a significant difference in the category steadiness of the right hand. Conclusions Our results show that steadiness and visuomotor integration of fine motor skills are altered in our adult sample but not precision and speed of movements. This alteration pattern might be the clinical vignette of complex adaptations in the excitability of the motor system on the basis of altered cortical and subcortical components. The structurally and functionally altered neuronal components could encompass orbitofrontal, ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices, the anterior cingulate, amygdala, primary motor and sensorimotor areas including altered corticospinal projections, the corpus callosum and the basal ganglia.
    BMC Neurology 10/2012; 12(1):120. DOI:10.1186/1471-2377-12-120 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    • "However, in our study, the use of telephone interviews decreased the level of diagnostic certainty by increasing the frequency of possible tics up to 19.4%.32 Unfortunately, similar reliability of data from telephone interviews has not been published in other studies, so comparisons are not possible.16,50 "
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    ABSTRACT: Tic disorders are neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood associated with psychiatric comorbidity and academic problems. Estimating the prevalence and understanding the epidemiology of tic disorders is more complex than was once thought. Until fairly recently, tic disorders were thought to be rare, but today tics are believed to be the most common movement disorder, with 0.2-46.3% of schoolchildren experiencing tics during their lifetime. Tentative explanations for differing prevalence estimates include the multidimensional nature of tics with a varied and heterogeneous presentation, and the use of different epidemiological methods and study designs. Literature review and analysis of methodological issues pertinent to epidemiological studies of tic disorders. Epidemiological studies of tic disorders were reviewed, and the main elements of epidemiological studies, including sample selection, case ascertainment strategy, definition of tic disorders, and the degree of coverage of the eligible population (i.e., the response rate) were examined. In order to improve the quality of epidemiological studies of tic disorders, a number of recommendations were made, including but not limited to a review of the diagnostic criteria for tic disorders, and inclusion of new tic disorder categories for those with tics of secondary etiology.
    05/2012; 2.
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