Article

Cytologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma grades 1 and 2 from reactive follicular hyperplasia: cytologic features of fine-needle aspiration smears with Pap stain and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to detect t(14;18)(q32;q21) chromosomal translocation.

Department of Pathology, Showa University Fujigaoka Hospital, Yokohama, Japan.
Diagnostic Cytopathology (Impact Factor: 1.52). 01/2006; 34(1):11-7. DOI: 10.1002/dc.20381
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a well-established technique for diagnosis of malignant lymphoma (ML). Generally, Giemsa but not Pap stain is used in FNAC. However, cytologic features obtained from Pap stain are also valuable. Very few studies on the cytologic characteristics of ML, as determined by Pap stain, are available. It is easier to observe nuclear irregularity and to identify nucleoli in ML cells by Pap stain than by Giemsa stain. Here, we applied Pap stain for cytomorphologic differential diagnosis of follicular lymphoma (FL) from reactive follicular hyperplasia (RFH). Eighteen biopsy-confirmed cases of FL grades 1 and 2, with available FNAC smears, and six cases of RFH were selected for this study. Low-power magnification showed well-known features, and tingible body macrophages and lymphoid cell aggregates were observed frequently in RFH and FL, respectively. In addition, the so-called two-nuclei-like cleaved cells were observed frequently in FL. These cells showed notably cleaved nuclei, and therefore, appeared to possess two nuclei. Under high-power magnification, the occurrence of cells with nucleoli >1 microm and of cleaved cells was high in FL compared to RFH. It is believed that FL derives from centrocytes and that FL cells are slightly larger than non-neoplastic small lymphocytes. However, analysis of cell diameter in this study indicated that small lymphoma cells were predominant in half the cases of FL grades 1 and 2, and the percentage of these cells was similar to that in RFH, showing why false-negative diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2 occasionally occurs. There are limitations of FNAC in the diagnosis of FL. However, we believe that the appearance of two-nuclei-like cleaved cells and the high percentage of nucleoli-possessing cells, which we describe here, provide significant and valuable clues for the differential diagnosis of FL from RFH. Of 18 cases of FL grades 1 and 2, t(14;18)(q32;q21) was found in 13 cases with the use of destained FNAC smears. Our study suggests that, together with the cytomorphologic findings described earlier, FISH analysis for the chromosomal translocation, t(14;18)(q32;q21), is crucial for final cytologic diagnosis of FL grades 1 and 2.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
41 Views
  • Source
    Acta Cytologica - ACTA CYTOL. 01/2007; 51:123-152.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:B-cell lymphomas with concurrent IGH/BCL2 and MYC gene rearrangements, termed dual-translocation or double-hit lymphomas (DTLs), rarely are identified. They usually are characterized by highly aggressive behavior, a poor prognosis, and complex karyotypes. The objective of this study was to review and describe the cytomorphologic findings in different types of cytologic preparations and clinicopathologic characteristics of patients with DTLs.METHODS:Patient samples with IGH/BCL2 and MYC rearrangements that were detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization during the period from October 2003 to September 2009 were selected for morphology review. Clinical data and results from additional studies were collected from patient reports.RESULTS:Cytologic samples from 14 patients (5 men and 9 women) were reviewed. The most common cytomorphologic pattern was a mixed cell population consisting predominantly of large cells (88.2%), mainly centroblasts (94.1%), with dark blue cytoplasm (76.4%) accompanied by apoptotic bodies (64.7%), with marked cellular pleomorphism (94.1%). Nuclear segmentation was present in 64.7% of samples, conferring a “coffee bean” nucleus, and cytoplasmic vacuoles were observed in 46.6% of samples. Immunophenotyping revealed the expression of CD20, CD19, surface immunoglobulin, and CD10 in 13 samples. Other chromosomal aberrations were also identified. Seven patients died of their disease, and the time from progression to death ranged from 1 month to 16 months.CONCLUSIONS:Large cells with deeply basophilic cytoplasm, cytoplasmic vacuoles, and frequent segmented nuclei, particularly in fine needle aspirate smears and especially in patients with clinically aggressive and/or unusual clinical features, should trigger a fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for IGH/BCL2 and MYC translocation to identify this entity. Cancer (Cancer Cytopathol) 2011;. © 2011 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer Cytopathology 05/2011; 119(4):254 - 262. · 4.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) has proven to be a rapid, cost-effective, and accurate means for evaluating a wide variety of conditions in most organ systems, although the FNA diagnosis of lymphoma (especially the primary diagnosis) remains controversial. However, recent changes to the World Health Organization classification of lymphomas place more emphasis on cytology and less emphasis on architecture, thus opening the door to a more expanded use of FNA, particularly in non-Hodgkin lymphomas. A review of the literature over the past 10 years reveals sensitivity in the range of 66%–100% and specificity in the range of 58%–100%. The complementary use of cytomorphology, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry has proven more accurate that any single modality alone. Sophisticated techniques once reserved for the research laboratory (ie, FISH and PCR) are now often used in the clinical setting and provide important diagnostic and prognostic information. The evaluation of Hodgkin lymphomas and some large-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas remains problematic and may require tissue core biopsy. We also briefly consider the use of FNA in workup of metastatic tumors in lymph nodes. Rapid and accurate assessment of metastatic disease, particularly carcinomas and melanomas, is readily accomplished by FNA biopsy, with an overall sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of over 90%. In these cases, cell block material can be obtained to perform various ancillary studies for additional useful prognostic information.
    Pathology Case Reviews 01/2007; 12(1):10-26.