Tenofovir-Associated Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease: A Case of Multiple Drug Interactions

Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Science, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.
Clinical Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 8.89). 02/2006; 42(2):283-90. DOI: 10.1086/499048
Source: PubMed


Tenofovir therapy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has been associated with acute renal failure (ARF) and Fanconi syndrome. In the past 2 years, we diagnosed tenofovir-associated ARF in 5 HIV-infected patients who were receiving tenofovir therapy and who had classic findings of acute tubular necrosis, and we compared findings for our patients with data on 22 patients described in the literature. The mean serum creatinine level increased from 0.9 to 3.9 mg/dL, and it decreased to 1.2 mg/dL during recovery. ARF resolved in 22 of 27 patients after discontinuation of tenofovir therapy. The most common drugs given with tenofovir were ritonavir or lopinavir-ritonavir (21 of 27 patients), atazanavir (5 of 27 patients), and didanosine (9 of 27 patients). Tenofovir-associated ARF manifests as acute tubular necrosis that may not resolve with tenofovir withdrawal. Tenofovir is associated with multiple drug interactions, leading to an increased risk of ARF. Frequent monitoring of renal function is warranted for any patient receiving these combinations.

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    • "Individuals with underlying impaired kidney function and patients whose kidney damage was drug-induced would likely benefit from vigilant renal follow-up. Particularly, patients receiving tenofovir may benefit from frequent assessments of kidney function, serum phosphate levels, and urinalyses to monitor for early signs of nephrotoxicity [6,30]. The HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) recommends that patients receiving TDF meet any of three criteria: eGFR<90 mL/min/1.73 "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) plus ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) regimen on renal function in Chinese HIV-infected patients. Seventy-five HIV-1 infected patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) comprised the TDF+PI/r group. Seventy-five HIV-1 infected patients matched for gender, age, and renal function made up the control. All subjects completed follow-up visits over 48 weeks. CD4 cell count, plasma HIV-1 viral load, and urine protein level were assessed at the trial start (baseline, week 0) and at week 48. The serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were monitored at each follow-up point. Change in eGFR from baseline to week 48 was also compared. Compared to control, the TDF+PI/r group exhibited higher levels of serum creatinine (79 vs. 69.7 mumol/L, P<0.001) and a lower rate of eGFR (93.0 vs. 101.6 ml/min/1.73m2, P=0.009) at the end of week 48. Patients treated with TDF+PI/r showed greater decline in eGFR than control (-8.8 vs. 6.4ml/min/1.73m2, P<0.001). Compared to baseline renal function of the control group, the TDF+PI/r group exhibited a greater median decline in eGFR at the end of week 48 (P<0.001). We found that a TDF+PI/r based ART regimen resulted in greater renal function decline over 48 weeks. Therefore, renal function should be monitored especially when TDF is used in combination with PI/r.Trial registration: identifier: NCT00872417.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 07/2013; 13(1):301. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-13-301 · 2.61 Impact Factor
    • "Confirmed cases of Fanconi syndrome due to tenofovir have been reported worldwide.[239] In India also teneofovir associated renal dysfunction have been reported.[10] "
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    ABSTRACT: Tenofovir was introduced as a second line drug for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India in December 2009. Although rare, renal toxicity is a recognized adverse drug reaction (ADR) of this drug, especially when administered with boosted lopinavir-ritonavir. In this case, an HIV positive patient receiving tenofovir based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for last 1 year developed albuminuria, glycosuria and hypophosphatemia. Renal function tests and random blood sugar were within normal limits. He was diagnosed as a case of tenofovir induced Fanconi syndrome. Tenofovir was discontinued and patient was prescribed an alternate regimen. Five months later clinical symptoms and renal functions returned to normal. A pharmacokinetic interaction between tenofovir and ritonavir may have resulted in the toxicity. A periodic monitoring of renal functions is desirable in patients on tenofovir based ART.
    Indian Journal of Pharmacology 03/2013; 45(2):191-192. DOI:10.4103/0253-7613.108319 · 0.69 Impact Factor
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    • "Renal tubular disease and Fanconi syndrome have emerged as clinically significant complications of cART, and are most commonly observed with TFV [19]. The majority of reported cases of Fanconi syndrome have arisen in patients aged >40 years who received TFV together with didanosine or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors (TFV/PI) [20-23]. Milder forms of tubular dysfunction (defined by variable criteria) have been reported in 12-81 % of HIV positive patients on cART [24-27]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease is common in HIV positive patients and renal tubular dysfunction has been reported in those receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Tenofovir (TFV) in particular has been linked to severe renal tubular disease as well as proximal tubular dysfunction. Markedly elevated urinary concentrations of retinal-binding protein (RBP) have been reported in patients with severe renal tubular disease, and low-molecular-weight proteins (LMWP) such as RBP may be useful in clinical practice to assess renal tubular function in patients receiving TFV. We analysed 3 LMWP as well as protein and albumin in the urine of a sample of HIV positive patients. In a cross-sectional fashion, total protein, albumin, RBP, cystatin C, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were quantified in random urine samples of 317 HIV positive outpatients and expressed as the ratio-to-creatinine (RBPCR, CCR and NGALCR). Exposure to cART was categorised as none, cART without TFV, and cART containing TFV and a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor (TFV/NNRTI) or TFV and a protease-inhibitor (TFV/PI). Proteinuria was present in 10.4 % and microalbuminuria in 16.7 % of patients. Albumin accounted for approximately 10 % of total urinary protein. RBPCR was within the reference range in 95 % of patients while NGALCR was elevated in 67 % of patients. No overall differences in urine protein, albumin, and LMWP levels were observed among patients stratified by cART exposure, although a greater proportion of patients exposed to TFV/PI had RBPCR >38.8 μg/mmol (343 μg/g) (p = 0.003). In multivariate analyses, black ethnicity (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.24, 0.77) and eGFR <75 mL/min/1.73 m2 (OR 3.54, 95 % CI 1.61, 7.80) were independently associated with upper quartile (UQ) RBPCR. RBPCR correlated well to CCR (r2 = 0.71), but not to NGALCR, PCR or ACR. In HIV positive patients, proteinuria was predominantly of tubular origin and microalbuminuria was common. RBPCR in patients without overt renal tubular disease was generally within the reference range, including those receiving TFV. RBP therefore appears a promising biomarker for monitoring renal tubular function in patients receiving TFV and for distinguishing patients with normal tubular function or mild tubular dysfunction from those with severe renal tubular disease or Fanconi syndrome.
    BMC Nephrology 08/2012; 13(1):85. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-13-85 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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