Maximum aerobic performance in lines of Mus selected for high wheel-running activity: effects of selection, oxygen availability and the mini-muscle phenotype.
ABSTRACT We compared maximum aerobic capacity during forced exercise (VO2max) in hypoxia (PO2=14% O2), normoxia (21%) and hyperoxia (30%) of lines of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running (S lines) with their four unselected control (C) lines. We also tested for pleiotropic effects of the ;mighty mini-muscle' allele, a Mendelian recessive that causes a 50% reduction in hind limb muscle but a doubling of mass-specific aerobic enzyme activity, among other pleiotropic effects. VO2max of female mice was measured during forced exercise on a motorized treadmill enclosed in a metabolic chamber that allowed altered PO2. Individual variation in VO2max was highly repeatable within each PO2, and values were also significantly correlated across PO2. Analysis of covariance showed that S mice had higher body-mass-adjusted VO2max than C at all PO2, ranging from +10.7% in hypoxia to +20.8% in hyperoxia. VO2max of S lines increased practically linearly with PO2, whereas that of C lines plateaued from normoxia to hyperoxia, and respiratory exchange ratio (=CO2 production/VO2max) was lower for S lines. These results suggest that the physiological underpinnings of VO2max differ between the S and C lines. Apparently, at least in S lines, peripheral tissues may sustain higher rates of oxidative metabolism if central organs provide more O2. Although the existence of central limitations in S lines cannot be excluded based solely on the present data, we have previously reported that both S and C lines can attain considerably higher VO2max during cold exposure in a He-O2 atmosphere, suggesting that limitations on VO2max depend on interactions between the central and peripheral organs involved. In addition, mini-muscle individuals had higher VO2max than did those with normal muscles, suggesting that the former might have higher hypoxia tolerance. This would imply that the mini-muscle phenotype could be a good model to test how exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance could evolve in a correlated fashion, as previous researchers have suggested.
SourceAvailable from: Cláudio Cesar Zoppi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is provoked by an autoimmune assault against pancreatic β cells. Exercise training enhances β-cell mass in T1D. Here, we investigated how exercise signals β cells in T1D condition. For this, we used several approaches. Wild-type and IL-6 knockout (KO) C57BL/6 mice were exercised. Afterward, islets from control and trained mice were exposed to inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β plus IFN-γ). Islets from control mice and β-cell lines (INS-1E and MIN6) were incubated with serum from control or trained mice or medium obtained from 5-aminoimidazole-4 carboxamide1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR)-treated C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. Subsequently, islets and β cells were exposed to IL-1β plus IFN-γ. Proteins were assessed by immunoblotting, apoptosis was determined by DNA-binding dye propidium iodide fluorescence, and NO(•) was estimated by nitrite. Exercise reduced 25, 75, and 50% of the IL-1β plus IFN-γ-induced iNOS, nitrite, and cleaved caspase-3 content, respectively, in pancreatic islets. Serum from trained mice and medium from AICAR-treated C2C12 cells reduced β-cell death, induced by IL-1β plus IFN-γ treatment, in 15 and 38%, respectively. This effect was lost in samples treated with IL-6 inhibitor or with serum from exercised IL-6 KO mice. In conclusion, muscle contraction signals β-cell survival in T1D through IL-6.-Paula, F. M. M., Leite, N. C., Vanzela, E. C., Kurauti, M. A., Freitas-Dias, R., Carneiro, E. M., Boschero, A. C., and Zoppi, C. C. Exercise increases pancreatic β-cell viability in a model of type 1 diabetes through IL-6 signaling. © FASEB.The FASEB Journal 01/2015; DOI:10.1096/fj.14-264820 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Endurance exercise training as well as leucine supplementation modulates glucose homeostasis and protein turnover in mammals. Here, we analyze whether leucine supplementation alters the effects of endurance exercise on these parameters in healthy mice. Mice were distributed into sedentary (C) and exercise (T) groups. The exercise group performed a 12-week swimming protocol. Half of the C and T mice, designated as the CL and TL groups, were supplemented with leucine (1.5 % dissolved in the drinking water) throughout the experiment. As well known, endurance exercise training reduced body weight and the retroperitoneal fat pad, increased soleus mass, increased VO2max, decreased muscle proteolysis, and ameliorated peripheral insulin sensitivity. Leucine supplementation had no effect on any of these parameters and worsened glucose tolerance in both CL and TL mice. In the soleus muscle of the T group, AS-160(Thr-642) (AKT substrate of 160 kDa) and AMPK(Thr-172) (AMP-Activated Protein Kinase) phosphorylation was increased by exercise in both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions, but it was reduced in TL mice with insulin stimulation compared with the T group. Akt phosphorylation was not affected by exercise but was lower in the CL group compared with the other groups. Leucine supplementation increased mTOR phosphorylation at basal conditions, whereas exercise reduced it in the presence of insulin, despite no alterations in protein synthesis. In trained groups, the total FoxO3a protein content and the mRNA for the specific isoforms E2 and E3 ligases were reduced. In conclusion, leucine supplementation did not potentiate the effects of endurance training on protein turnover, and it also reduced its positive effects on glucose homeostasis.Amino Acids 01/2015; 47(4). DOI:10.1007/s00726-014-1903-z · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Artificial selection experiments are an effective tool for testing evolutionary hypotheses, because they allow one to separate genetic and environmental variances of the phenotype. However, it is unclear whether trait divergence typically selected early in life persists over animal's life and altered physiological states, such as reproduction. Here we analyzed the long-term consistency of the between-line type divergence in Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) selected at 12 weeks of age in laboratory mice. We measured BMR in non-reproducing and reproducing females at the age of 22 weeks and then at 27 weeks of age. Our results show that within both the reproducing and the control group the between-line type separation in BMR is consistently retained over time and reproductive status. Metabolically active internal organs (heart, liver, kidneys and small intestine) also consistently differed in size between the two line types with no significant long-term effect of reproduction. The observed consistency of the betweenline type divergence in BMR suggests the existence of the persistent effect of the selection on metabolic traits applied early in life. Moreover, BMR variation achieved by means of the artificial selection is considerably higher than that found in natural/unmanipulated populations. The latter may therefore be characterized by insufficient variance to statistically resolve correlations involving BMR.Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 05/2015; 88(3). DOI:10.1086/680167 · 2.05 Impact Factor