Congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG)-Ih patient with a severe hepato-intestinal phenotype and evolving central nervous system pathology
ABSTRACT We present the clinical, molecular, and biochemical diagnosis of a patient with congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG)-Ih. We report significant brain dysfunction in this multisystem disease, further expanding its complex clinical spectrum.
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ABSTRACT: Glycosylation is an essential process by which sugars are attached to proteins and lipids. Complete lack of glycosylation is not compatible with life. Because of the widespread function of glycosylation, inherited disorders of glycosylation are multisystemic. Since the identification of the first defect on N-linked glycosylation in the 1980s, there are over 40 different congenital protein hypoglycosylation diseases. This review will include defects of N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation and disorders of combined N- and O-linked glycosylation.The Application of Clinical Genetics 07/2012; 5:43-54. DOI:10.2147/TACG.S18673
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ABSTRACT: Abstract The prevalence of fatty liver is rising not only in adults but also in children and adolescents. The authors describe the ultrastructure of 12 biopsies from 10 males and 2 females aged 7-18 years. All subjects had fatty liver by ultrasonography and were overweight or obese according to BMI classification. They all had elevated aminotransferases and/or lipid/cholesterol levels, ultimately confirmed by biopsy. Steatosis was mild in 2, moderate in 3, and severe in 7 cases. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was diagnosed in 7 and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in 5 patients. Lipolysosomes, identified in all 12 biopsies, were defined as fat droplets surrounded by a trilaminar membrane and lipofuscin-like deposits within or adjacent to the enveloping membrane. The lysosome marker CD68 revealed lysosomal activity in all lipolysosomes identified by electron microscopy. The ultrastructural features, here illustrated in diverse human biopsies, enabled lipolysosome classification in 3 types: monolocular (type I), multilocular (type II), and giant multilocular (type III). Type II, previously described in some conditions with abnormal lipid metabolism, was found in all biopsies, though with variable frequency. Type III was observed only in severe steatosis and associated with prominent connective tissue and conspicuous lipofuscin deposits. These new findings demonstrate the presence of lipolysosomes in a variety of fatty livers, in conditions hitherto unknown, in relation to the severity of steatosis, fibrogenic process, autophagy, lipolysis, and lipofuscin formation.Ultrastructural Pathology 10/2013; 37(5):293-303. DOI:10.3109/01913123.2013.799625 · 1.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Glycosylation is the posttranslational coupling of sugar chains to proteins or lipids. Proper glycosylation is essential for normal protein structure, function, and trafficking. Mutations in the glycosylation pathway lead to a phenotypically heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders, the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Some of these conditions, including PMM2-CDG, frequently present with recognizable skin abnormalities such as abnormal fat distribution, skin wrinkling, or peau d'orange, whereas others, such as COG7-CDG and ATP6V0A2-CDG, have been described in association with cutis laxa: wrinkled, inelastic, and sagging skin. Ichthyosis is also common in several types of CDG. ALG8-CDG is a severe disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, protein-losing enteropathy, neurologic and ophthalmologic problems, and developmental delay. We reviewed the clinical features in all nine previously reported patients diagnosed with ALG8-CDG with a special focus on their skin signs. Three of the nine patients had abnormal fat distribution and skin wrinkling. As the spectrum of CDG presenting with skin signs expands further, we suggest screening for CDG in all patients presenting with any type of central nervous involvement and wrinkled skin, cutis laxa, severe ichthyosis, or abnormal fat distribution.Pediatric Dermatology 10/2013; 31(1):e1-5. DOI:10.1111/pde.12233 · 1.52 Impact Factor