Immune response induced by Salmonella typhimurium defective in ppGpp synthesis
ABSTRACT Systemic infection by Salmonella typhimurium requires coordinated expression of virulence genes found primarily in Salmonella Pathogenecity Islands (SPIs). We have previously reported that the intracellular signal that induces these virulence genes is a stringent signal molecule, ppGpp [Song et al. J Biol Chem 2003;279:34183]. In this study, we found that relA and spoT double mutant Salmonella (DeltappGpp strain), which is defective in ppGpp synthesis, was virtually avirulent in BALB/c mice. Subsequently, the live vaccine potential of the avirulent DeltappGpp Salmonella strain was determined. A single immunization with live DeltappGpp Salmonella efficiently protected mice from challenge with wild-type Salmonella at a dose 10(6)-fold above the LD50 30 days after immunization. Various assays revealed that immunization of mice with the DeltappGpp strain elicited both systemic and mucosal antibody responses, in addition to cell-mediated immunity.
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- "The attenuated S. typhimurium strains SHJ2037 and A1R were cultured in Luria-Bertani (LB) broth medium (Difco Laboratories, USA) with vigorous aeration at 37°C, as previously described (Na et al., 2006; Zhao et al., 2006). SHJ2037 (relA::cat, spoT::kan) is a ∆ppGpp strain and A1R is an auxotrophic mutant for leucine and arginine, kindly provided by R. M. Hoffman (AntiCancer, Inc., USA) (Zhao et al., 2006). "
ABSTRACT: The use of bacteria has contributed to recent advances in targeted cancer therapy especially for its tumor-specific accumulation and proliferation. In this study, we investigated the molecular events following bacterial therapy using an attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium defective in ppGpp synthesis (ΔppGpp), by analyzing those proteins differentially expressed in tumor tissues from treated and untreated mice. CT26 murine colon cancer cells were implanted in BALB/c mice and allowed to form tumors. The tumor-bearing mice were treated with the attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium. Tumor tissues were analyzed by 2D-PAGE. Fourteen differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The analysis revealed that cytoskeletal components, including vimentin, drebrin-like protein, and tropomyosin-alpha 3, were decreased while serum proteins related to heme or iron metabolism, including transferrin, hemopexin, and haptoglobin were increased. Subsequent studies revealed that the decrease in cytoskeletal components occurred at the transcriptional level and that the increase in heme and iron metabolism proteins occurred in liver. Most interestingly, the same pattern of increased expression of transferrin, hemopexin, and haptoglobin was observed following radiotherapy at the dosage of 14 Gy.The Journal of Microbiology 06/2012; 50(3):502-10. DOI:10.1007/s12275-012-2090-9 · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During infection of mammalian hosts, facultative intracellular pathogens have to adjust rapidly to different environmental conditions encountered during passage through the gastrointestinal tract and following uptake into epithelial cells and macrophages. Successful establishment within the host therefore requires the coordinated expression of a large number of virulence genes necessary for the adaptation between the extracellular and intracellular phases of infection. In this study we show that the bacterial signal molecule, ppGpp, plays a major role in mediating the environmental signals involved in the regulation of both the extracellular and intracellular virulence gene programs. Under oxygen limiting conditions, we observed a strong ppGpp dependence for invasion gene expression, the result of severe reductions in expression of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI) 1 transcriptional regulator genes hilA, C, and D and invF. Overexpression of the non-SPI1-encoded regulator RtsA restored hilA expression in the absence of ppGpp. SPI2-encoded genes, required for intracellular proliferation in macrophages, were activated in the wild type strain under aerobic, late log phase growth conditions. The expression of SPI2 genes was also shown to be ppGpp-dependent under these conditions. The results from this study suggest a mechanism for the alternate regulation of the opposing extracellular and intracellular virulence gene programs and indicate a remarkable specificity for ppGpp in the regulation of genes involved in virulence compared with the rest of the genome. This is the first demonstration that this highly conserved regulatory system is involved in bacterial virulence gene expression on a global scale.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2006; 281(40):30112-21. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M605616200 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bacteria respond to starvation by synthesizing a polyphosphate derivative of guanosine, (p)ppGpp, that helps the bacteria in surviving during stress. The protein in Gram-positive organisms required for (p)ppGpp synthesis is Rel, a bifunctional enzyme that carries out both synthesis and hydrolysis of this molecule. Rel shows increased pppGpp synthesis in the presence of uncharged tRNA, the effect of which is regulated by the C-terminal of Rel. We show by fluorescence resonance energy transfer that the distance between the N-terminus cysteine residue at the catalytic domain and C692 at the C-terminus increases upon the addition of uncharged tRNA. In apparent anomaly, the steady state anisotropy of the Rel protein decreases upon tRNA binding suggesting "compact conformation" vis-à-vis "open conformation" of the free Rel. We propose that the interaction between C692 and the residues present in the pppGpp synthesis site results in the regulated activity and this interaction is abrogated upon addition of uncharged tRNA. We also report here the binding of pppGpp to the C-terminal part of the protein that leads to more unfolding in this region.Biophysical Chemistry 05/2007; 127(1-2):41-50. DOI:10.1016/j.bpc.2006.12.003 · 2.32 Impact Factor