A review of the reference dose for chlorpyrifos
ABSTRACT Chlorpyrifos is an inhibitor of cholinesterase (ChE) and inhibition of ChE is believed to be the most sensitive effect in all animal species evaluated and in humans from previous evaluations. Recent literature, in particular epidemiology studies reporting associations between chlorpyrifos levels and fetal birth weight decreases, suggest the need to reevaluate the basis of the reference dose (RfD) for chlorpyrifos, however. In this paper, we evaluated newly available publications regarding chlorpyrifos toxicity and discuss the choice of critical effect--whether cholinesterase inhibition or developmental effect, the choice of appropriate species and study, the appropriate point of departure, and choice of uncertainty factors--including a discussion of the FQPA safety factor. We conclude that RBC cholinesterase inhibition is the critical effect, that human studies form the best choice of species--supported by a wealth of experimental animal data, that a NOAEL of 0.1 mg/kg/day is the most appropriate point of departure, and that a 10-fold factor for within human variability is sufficient to characterize the overall uncertainty in this rather large database. The resulting RfD is 0.01 mg/kg/day.
SourceAvailable from: Pamela J Lein[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and profenofos (PFF) are organophosphorus (OP) insecticides that are applied seasonally in Egypt to cotton fields. Urinary trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), a specific CPF metabolite, and 4-bromo-2-chlorophenol (BCP), a specific PFF metabolite, are biomarkers of exposure, while inhibition of blood butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities are effect biomarkers that may be associated with neurotoxicity. Urinary TCPy and BCP and blood BChE and AChE activities were measured in 37 adult Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture workers during and after 9–17 consecutive days of CPF application followed by an application of PFF (9–11 days), and a second CPF application (5 days) in 2008. During the OP applications, urinary TCPy and BCP levels were significantly higher than baseline levels, remained elevated following the application periods, and were associated with an exposure related inhibition of blood BChE and AChE. Analysis of blood AChE levels before and after the PFF application period suggests that individual workers with peak BCP levels greater than 1000 μg/g creatinine exhibited further inhibition of blood AChE with PFF application, demonstrating that PFF exposure had a negative impact on AChE activity in this highly exposed worker population. While large interindividual differences in exposure were observed throughout this longitudinal study (peak urinary BCP and peak TCPy levels for individuals ranging from 13.4 to 8052 and 16.4 to 30,107 μg/g creatinine, respectively), these urinary biomarkers were highly correlated within workers (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). This suggests that the relative exposures to CPF and PFF were highly correlated for a given worker. The variable exposures between job classification and work site suggest that job title and work location should not be used as the sole basis for categorizing OP exposures when assessing neurobehavioral and other health outcomes in Egyptian cotton field workers. Together, these findings will be important in educating the Egyptian insecticide application workers in order to encourage the development and implementation of work practices and personal protective equipment to reduce their exposure to CPF and PFF.International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 11/2014; 218(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.10.005 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) is widely used in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) to control agricultural pests. The present work is a preliminary investigation of the effect of CPF on healing of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) lesions, caused by Leishmania major in farmers exposed to this insecticide, after treatment with Pentostam(®). Lesion diameters were measured and CPF concentrations in the blood plasma of farmer and non-farmer CL patients in Al-Ahsa were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry before and 6 weeks after treatment with Pentostam(®). CPF concentrations in the blood of farmer patients ranged between 4.570 and 7.096 ng/μl (mean = 6.19 ± 0.881 ng/μl) before and after treatment with Pentostam(®). The mean lesion diameter in these patients decreased by a factor of 2.21 after treatment with Pentostam(®); they measured 1.85-11.75 mm, (mean = 6.165 ± 3.500 mm) before treatment and 0.22-6.10 mm (mean = 2.796 ± 2.102 mm) after treatment. Lesion diameter increased exponentially with the increase of CPF concentration in the patients' blood. CPF was not detected in the non-farmer patients before or after treatment. Their mean lesion diameter decreased by a factor of 6.86 after treatment with Pentostam(®); they measured 1.33-7.10 mm (mean = 2.882 ± 1.764 mm) before treatment and 0.11-0.92 mm (mean = 0.425 ± 0.277 mm) after treatment. The mean lesion diameter in farmer patients was much greater than that of non-farmer patients both before (2.14×) and after (6.657×) treatment with Pentostam(®). Chronic exposure to low levels of the pesticide aggravates the development and delays the healing of CL lesions due to immunotoxicity and/or peripheral neurotoxicity caused by CPF. Further detailed studies would assess CPF effect on the severity of infection with CL in agricultural workers continuously exposed to this insecticide in different areas of KSA in conformity of their finding.Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 07/2009; 16(1):31-6. DOI:10.1016/j.sjbs.2009.07.005 · 0.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: One of the most important issues in ecotoxicology is better understanding the effects of interactions between chemical pollutants and physical environmental factors on animals. To fill this knowledge gap, changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain samples of bank voles Myodes (Clethrionomys) glareolus due to temperature effects, and two chemical stressors were studied in a full factorial laboratory experiment (27 treatments). The experiment was divided into three phases: acclimatisation (3 days), intoxication (42 days) and elimination (21 days). During the intoxication phase, animals were orally exposed to different concentrations of either nickel (0, 300 or 800mg Ni/kg food), chlorpyrifos (CPF) (0, 50 or 350mg CPF/kg food) or a mixture of both chemicals. During the acclimatisation and elimination phases, the bank voles were given uncontaminated food. The experiment was conducted at three different temperatures (10, 20 or 30°C), and a 12h:12h light:dark regime. The animals were sacrificed at 0, 5, 10, 20, 42, 49 and 63 days after the beginning of the intoxication, and brain samples were obtained for chemical analysis. The nickel accumulation in the brain depended on the level of nickel exposure and on interactions between the temperature and other factors. Nickel exhibited no effect on AChE activity. In contrast, AChE was drastically inhibited by chlorpyrifos and low temperature, but interactions between all factors significantly influenced the enzyme activity during the elimination phase of the experiment. High mortality was observed in the groups exposed to high concentrations of nickel and chlorpyrifos.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 05/2014; 106C:204-212. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2014.04.021 · 2.48 Impact Factor