Application of electron spin resonance spin-trapping technique for evaluation of substrates and inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase.
ABSTRACT The electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique coupled with iron-dithiocarbamate complexes is one of the most specific methods for nitric oxide (NO) detection. In this study, we applied this method for the evaluation of the substrate and the inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS). A three-line ESR signal was detected from the mixture of inducible NOS (iNOS), l-arginine (Arg), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH), tetrahydrobiopterin, dithiothreitol, and Fe(2+)-N-(dithiocarboxy) sarcosine (DTCS-Fe), and the signal intensity increased time-dependently. The signal was not observed by excluding either Arg or NADPH, and it was decreased by the addition of hemoglobin, which is an NO scavenger, and N(G)-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), N(G)-nitro-l-arginine (l-NAME), and aminoguanidine (AG), which are NOS inhibitors, depending on the concentration. In comparison with l-NAME and AG, l-NMMA strongly inhibited iNOS activity. By using this method, the K(m) value of Arg and the K(i) value of l-NMMA for iNOS were determined to be 12.6 and 6.1muM, respectively. These values are consistent with the reported values measured by the oxyhemoglobin and citrulline assays. These results suggest that the ESR spin-trapping technique coupled with the iron-dithiocarbamate complex can be applied for the evaluation of substrates and inhibitors of NOS, and it would be a powerful tool due to its simplicity and high specificity to NO.
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ABSTRACT: A method that combines sequential injection analysis (SIA), flow injection analysis and chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for the quasi-simultaneous determination of antioxidative activities against superoxide anion (O2-) and nitric oxide (NO). The antioxidative activity was expressed as the decrease in luminol CL intensity caused by the quenching of O2- or NO by an antioxidant. The SIA system consisted of two syringe pumps, two selection valves, two holding coils, an HPLC pump to deliver luminol solution, and a CL detector. Operation of the syringe pumps and multiport valves was controlled automatically using a personal computer with appropriate software. A hypoxanthine (HX)-xanthine oxidase (XOD) system was used for the generation of O2-, and (+/-)-(E)-4-methyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-6-methoxy-3-hexenamide (NOR1) was employed as NO donor agent. The repeatability of the method was evaluated with 35.2 microg ml(-1) L-ascorbic acid, and the relative standard deviations (RSD) of the antioxidative activities were less than 3.8%. The quasi-simultaneous determination of the antioxidative activities in one sample was completed within 2.0 min. The antioxidative activities of some antioxidants and commercially available supplements containing certain antioxidants were successfully determined using this system. The proposed system is rapid and reproducible, and thus may be useful for the screening of functional foods, supplements and pharmaceutical formulations that exhibit antioxidative activity.Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 09/2007; 388(8):1809-14. DOI:10.1007/s00216-007-1406-9 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy has been widely applied in the research of biological free radicals for quantitative and qualitative analyses of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). The ESR spin-trapping method was developed in the early 1970s and enabled the analysis of short-lived free radicals. This method is now widely used as one of the most powerful tools for free radical studies. In this report, some of the studies that applied ESR for the measurement of ROS and RNS during oxidative stress are discussed.Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 07/2010; 47(1):1-11. DOI:10.3164/jcbn.10-13R · 2.29 Impact Factor