Mechanisms of pharmacological rescue of trafficking-defective hERG mutant channels in human long QT syndrome

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, 97239, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 03/2006; 281(7):4069-74. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M511765200
Source: PubMed


Long QT syndrome type 2 is caused by mutations in the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG). We previously reported that the N470D mutation is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but can be rescued to the plasma membrane by hERG channel blocker E-4031. The mechanisms of ER retention and how E-4031 rescues the N470D mutant are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the interaction of hERG channels with the ER chaperone protein calnexin. Using coimmunoprecipitation, we showed that the immature forms of both wild type hERG and N470D associated with calnexin. The association required N-linked glycosylation of hERG channels. Pulse-chase analysis revealed that N470D had a prolonged association with calnexin compared with wild type hERG and E-4031 shortened the time course of calnexin association with N470D. To test whether the prolonged association of N470D with calnexin is due to defective folding of mutant channels, we studied hERG channel folding using the trypsin digestion method. We found that N470D and the immature form of wild type hERG were more sensitive to trypsin digestion than the mature form of wild type hERG. In the presence of E-4031, N470D became more resistant to trypsin even when its ER-to-Golgi transport was blocked by brefeldin A. These results suggest that defective folding of N470D contributes to its prolonged association with calnexin and ER retention and that E-4031 may restore proper folding of the N470D channel leading to its cell surface expression.

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    • "The data showed that BFA alone resulted in a time-dependent reduction of the 155-kDa band (Fig. 3A), reflecting the dynamic degradation of mature hERG protein [29]. Ang II further significantly accelerated the degradation of the mature hERG protein (Fig. 3B). "
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of AT1 receptor stimulation by angiotensin II (Ang II) on human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) potassium channel protein in a heterogeneous expression system with the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells which stably expressed hERG channel protein and were transiently transfected with the human AT1 receptors (HEK293/hERG). Western-blot analysis showed that Ang II significantly decreased the expression of mature hERG channel protein (155-kDa band) in a time- and dose-dependent manner without affecting the level of immature hERG channel protein (135-kDa band). The relative intensity of 155-kDa band was 64.7 ± 6.8% of control (P < 0.01) after treatment of Ang II at 100 nM for 24 h. To investigate the effect of Ang II on the degradation of mature hERG channel protein, we blocked forward trafficking from ER to Golgi with a Golgi transit inhibitor brefeldin A (10 μM). Ang II significantly enhanced the time-dependent reduction of mature hERG channel protein. In addition, the proteasomal inhibitor lactacystin (5 μM) inhibited Ang II-mediated the reduction of mature hERG channel protein, but the lysosomal inhibitor bafilomycin A1 (1 μM) had no effect on the protein. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide 1 (1 μM) antagonized the reduction of mature hERG channel protein induced by Ang II. The results indicate that sustained stimulation of AT1 receptors by Ang II reduces the mature hERG channel protein via accelerating channel proteasomal degradation involving the PKC pathway.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2014; 452(3). DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2014.09.014 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    • "However, the drugs also bind many of the trafficking-defective LQT2 hERG forms mutated in the pore-forming region, to stabilize them and partially rescue their trafficking. In contrast, the drugs have no effects on trafficking-defective hERG with mutations in its independently folded N- or C-terminal regions (Anderson et al., 2006; Gong et al., 2006; Harley et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: Protein-folding diseases are an ongoing medical challenge. Many diseases within this group are genetically determined, and have no known cure. Among the examples in which the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms are well understood are diseases driven by misfolding of transmembrane proteins that normally function as cell-surface ion channels. Wild-type forms are synthesized and integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane system and, upon correct folding, are trafficked by the secretory pathway to the cell surface. Misfolded mutant forms traffic poorly, if at all, and are instead degraded by the ER-associated proteasomal degradation (ERAD) system. Molecular chaperones can assist the folding of the cytosolic domains of these transmembrane proteins; however, these chaperones are also involved in selecting misfolded forms for ERAD. Given this dual role of chaperones, diseases caused by the misfolding and aberrant trafficking of ion channels (referred to here as ion-channel-misfolding diseases) can be regarded as a consequence of insufficiency of the pro-folding chaperone activity and/or overefficiency of the chaperone ERAD role. An attractive idea is that manipulation of the chaperones might allow increased folding and trafficking of the mutant proteins, and thereby partial restoration of function. This Review outlines the roles of the cytosolic HSP70 chaperone system in the best-studied paradigms of ion-channel-misfolding disease - the CFTR chloride channel in cystic fibrosis and the hERG potassium channel in cardiac long QT syndrome type 2. In addition, other ion channels implicated in ion-channel-misfolding diseases are discussed.
    Disease Models and Mechanisms 03/2014; 7(3):319-329. DOI:10.1242/dmm.014001 · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    • "In addition to Hsp70, heat-shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70) has also been documented to be involved in h-ERG trafficking [14]. The interaction of h-ERG channels with the ER marker/chaperone protein calnexin (CANX) has also been reported [17,18]. The study by Delisle et al [13] demonstrated that small GTPase controls the Golgi processing and plasmalemmal expression of h-ERG K+ channels. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate if microRNAs (miRNAs) play a role in regulating h-ERG trafficking in the setting of chronic oxidative stress as a common deleterious factor for many cardiac disorders. We treated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes and HEK293 cells with stable expression of h-ERG with H2O2 for 12 h and 48 h. Expression of miR-17-5p seed miRNAs was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Protein levels of chaperones and h-ERG trafficking were measured by Western blot analysis. Luciferase reporter gene assay was used to study miRNA and target interactions. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were employed to record h-ERG K(+) current. H-ERG trafficking was impaired by H2O2 after 48 h treatment, accompanied by reciprocal changes of expression between miR-17-5p seed miRNAs and several chaperones (Hsp70, Hsc70, CANX, and Golga2), with the former upregulated and the latter downregulated. We established these chaperones as targets for miR-17-5p. Application miR-17-5p inhibitor rescued H2O2-induced impairment of h-ERG trafficking. Upregulation of endogenous by H2O2 or forced miR-17-5p expression either reduced h-ERG current. Sequestration of AP1 by its decoy molecule eliminated the upregulation of miR-17-5p, and ameliorated impairment of h-ERG trafficking. Collectively, deregulation of the miR-17-5p seed family miRNAs can cause severe impairment of h-ERG trafficking through targeting multiple ER stress-related chaperones, and activation of AP1 likely accounts for the deleterious upregulation of these miRNAs, in the setting of prolonged duration of oxidative stress. These findings revealed the role of miRNAs in h-ERG trafficking, which may contribute to the cardiac electrical disturbances associated with oxidative stress.
    PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e84984. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084984 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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