Fruit consumption of boys (8--11 years) is related to preferences for sour taste.
ABSTRACT The present study investigated whether the most preferred balance between sweet and sour taste of children (n=50, 9.2+/-0.9 yrs of age) are related to their consumption of fruit. Taste preferences were measured with a rank-by-elimination procedure with seven sweet orangeades that differed in added citric acid (i.e. 0.009-0.065 M). Fruit consumption was assessed with a questionnaire that was completed by the children's parents. Results showed that boys' but not girls' most preferred balance between sweet and sour taste was positively correlated with their consumption of fruit: that is, the more added citric acid was preferred the more fruit was consumed. We conclude that preference for high concentrations of citric acid in a sweet context may be associated with the consumption of fruit in boys. In girls, the optimal balance between sweet and sour taste seems to be of less importance; their consumption of fruit may be more influenced by their parents, availability and health related motives.
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ABSTRACT: To explore 5-year-old girls' ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Girls were asked to define dieting, to describe the behaviors dieting comprised, and were queried about links between dieting, weight control, and body shape. Parents completed questionnaires addressing family health history, demographics, and issues related to food, dieting, and weight control. Participants were 197 girls aged 5 years and their parents. All girls lived with both biological parents, and were without food allergies or chronic medical problems. For 5 open-ended questions related to dieting, girls were categorized as either having or not having ideas about dieting. These ideas, concepts, and beliefs were categorized, and logistic regression examined predictors of girls' ideas about dieting. Depending on the question, from 34% to 65% of girls aged 5 years had ideas about dieting. Compared to girls whose mothers did not diet, girls whose mothers reported current or recent dieting were more than twice as likely to have ideas about dieting, suggesting that mothers' dieting behavior is a source of young girls' ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Among mothers, more than 90% reported recent dieting, and most reported use of both health-promoting and health-compromising dieting behaviors. Women should be informed that weight control attempts may influence their young daughters' emerging ideas, concepts, and beliefs about dieting. Mothers should be encouraged to use health-promoting rather than health-compromising weight control strategies, not only for their own well being, but to reduce the likelihood that daughters will incorporate health-compromising dieting behaviors into their concepts, ideas, and beliefs about dieting.Journal of the American Dietetic Association 11/2000; 100(10):1157-63. · 3.80 Impact Factor
Article: Development of food preferences.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Using a developmental systems perspective, this review focuses on how genetic predispositions interact with aspects of the eating environment to produce phenotypic food preferences. Predispositions include the unlearned, reflexive reactions to basic tastes: the preference for sweet and salty tastes, and the rejection of sour and bitter tastes. Other predispositions are (a) the neophobic reaction to new foods and (b) the ability to learn food preferences based on associations with the contexts and consequences of eating various foods. Whether genetic predispositions are manifested in food preferences that foster healthy diets depends on the eating environment, including food availability and child-feeding practices of the adults. Unfortunately, in the United States today, the ready availability of energy-dense foods, high in sugar, fat, and salt, provides an eating environment that fosters food preferences inconsistent with dietary guidelines, which can promote excess weight gain and obesity.Annual Review of Nutrition 02/1999; 19:41-62. · 9.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Increased interest in the potential cardio-protective effects of fruit and vegetables is currently unsupported by systematic reviews of the reported associations of these foods with risk. All ecological, case-control, cohort studies and unconfounded trials in humans were eligible for inclusion. Eligible outcomes were symptomatic coronary heart disease, stroke and total circulatory disease. Only studies of diet that reported on fresh fruit and vegetables or a nutrient which could serve as a proxy (reversing the usual direction of inference) were included. MEDLINE (1966-1995) and EMBASE (1980-1995) were searched using the terms cerebrovascular disorder, coronary heart disease, fruit(s) and vegetable(s) as keywords. Personal bibliographies, books and reviews were also searched, as were citations in located reports. For coronary heart disease nine of ten ecological studies, two of three case-control studies and six of 16 cohort studies found a significant protective association with consumption of fruit and vegetables or surrogate nutrients. For stroke three of five ecological studies, none (of one) case-control study and six of eight cohort studies found a significant protective association with consumption of fruit and vegetables or surrogate nutrients. For total circulatory disease, one of two cohort studies reported a significant protective association. No attempt was made to arrive at a summary measure of the association because of the differences in study type, study quality and the different exposure measures used. Although null findings may be underreported the results are consistent with a strong protective effect of fruit and vegetables for stroke and a weaker protective effect on coronary heart disease. Greater use of food-based hypotheses and analyses, would complement existing nutrient-based analyses and help guide the search for underlying causes.International Journal of Epidemiology 03/1997; 26(1):1-13. · 6.98 Impact Factor