Changes of cerebral blood oxygenation and optical pathlength during activation and deactivation in the prefrontal cortex measured by time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy.
ABSTRACT To determine the alterations in optical characteristics and cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) during activation and deactivation, we evaluated the changes in mean optical pathlength (MOP) and CBO induced by a verbal fluency task (VFT) and driving simulation in the right and left prefrontal cortex (PFC), employing a newly developed time-resolved near infrared spectroscopy, which allows quantitative measurements of the evoked-CBO changes by determining the MOP with a sampling time of 1 s. The results demonstrated differences in MOP in the foreheads with the subjects and wavelength; however, there was no significant difference between the right and left foreheads (p > 0.05). Also, both the VFT and driving simulation task did not affect the MOP significantly as compared to that before the tasks (p > 0.05). In the bilateral PFCs, the VFT caused increases of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin associated with a decrease of deoxyhemoglobin, while the driving simulation task caused decreases of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin associated with an increase of deoxyhemoglobin; there were no significant differences in evoked-CBO changes between the right and left PFC. The present results will be useful for quantitative measurement of hemodynamic changes during activation and deactivation in the adults by near infrared spectroscopy.
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ABSTRACT: We previously found that the greatest salivation response in healthy human subjects is produced by facial vibrotactile stimulation of 89 Hz frequency with 1.9 μ m amplitude (89 Hz-S), as reported by Hiraba et al. (2012, 20011, and 2008). We assessed relationships between the blood flow to brain via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) in the frontal cortex and autonomic parameters. We used the heart rate (HRV: heart rate variability analysis in RR intervals), pupil reflex, and salivation as parameters, but the interrelation between each parameter and fNIRS measures remains unknown. We were to investigate the relationship in response to established paradigms using simultaneously each parameter-fNIRS recording in healthy human subjects. Analysis of fNIRS was examined by a comparison of various values between before and after various stimuli (89 Hz-S, 114 Hz-S, listen to classic music, and "Ahh" vocalization). We confirmed that vibrotactile stimulation (89 Hz) of the parotid glands led to the greatest salivation, greatest increase in heart rate variability, and the most constricted pupils. Furthermore, there were almost no detectable differences between fNIRS during 89 Hz-S and fNIRS during listening to classical music of fans. Thus, vibrotactile stimulation of 89 Hz seems to evoke parasympathetic activity.BioMed research international. 01/2014; 2014:910812.
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ABSTRACT: Spontaneous slow oscillations occur in cerebral hemodynamics and blood pressure (BP), and may reflect neurogenic, metabolic or myogenic control of the cerebral vasculature. Aging is accompanied by a degeneration of the vascular system, which may have consequences for regional cerebral blood flow and cognitive performance. This degeneration may be reflected in a reduction of spontaneous slow oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and BP. Therefore, we aimed to establish the dependency of slow oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and BP on the factors age and cognitive load, by using functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Fourteen healthy young (23-32 years) and 14 healthy older adults (64-78 years) performed a verbal n-back working-memory task. Oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration changes were registered by two fNIRS channels located over left and right prefrontal cortex. BP was measured in the finger by photoplethysmography. We found that very-low-frequency oscillations (0.02-0.07 Hz) and low-frequency oscillations (0.07-0.2 Hz) of cerebral hemodynamics and BP were reduced in the older adults compared to the young during task performance. In young adults, very-low-frequency oscillations of cerebral hemodynamics and BP reduced with increased cognitive load. Cognitive load did not affect low-frequency oscillations of the cerebral hemodynamics and BP. Transfer function analysis indicated that the relationship between BP and cerebral hemodynamic oscillations does not change under influence of age and cognitive load. Our results suggest aging-related changes in the microvasculature such as declined spontaneous activity in microvascular smooth muscle cells and vessel stiffness. Moreover, our results indicate that in addition to local vasoregulatory processes, systemic processes also influence cerebral hemodynamic signals. It is therefore crucial to take the factors age and BP into consideration for the analysis and interpretation of hemodynamic neuroimaging data.NeuroImage 01/2014; 85(1):608-615. · 6.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is nowadays a well established tool for qualitative, semi-quantitative and quantitative analyses of surfaces, with micro-destructive characteristics and capabilities for stratigraphy. LIBS is an appealing technique compared with many other types of elemental analysis thanks to the set up versatility facilitating non-invasive and remote analyses, as well as suitability to diagnostics in harsh environments. In this work, LIBS capabilities were used for the determination of the atomic composition of multilayered samples simulating the tiles of plasma facing components in the next generation fusion machines such as ITER. A new experimental setup was designed and realized in order to optimize the characteristics of an LIBS system working at low pressure and remotely, as it should be for an in situ system to be applied in monitoring the erosion and redeposition phenomena occurring on the inner walls of a fusion device. The effects of time delay and laser fluence on LIBS sensitivity at reduced pressure were examined, looking for operational conditions suitable to analytical applications. The quantitative analysis of some atomic species in the superficial layer has been carried out using a Calibration Free (CF) approach in the time window where Local Thermal Equilibrium (LTE) was assumed for an LIBS analysis.Chemical Physics 04/2012; · 2.03 Impact Factor