Technical aspects of perfusion-weighted imaging.
ABSTRACT There is increasing interest in using diffusion-weighted (DWI) MR imaging and perfusion-weighted MR imaging (PWI) to assist clinical decision-making in the management of acute stroke patients. Larger PWI than DWI lesions have been speculated to represent potentially salvageable tissue that is at risk of infarction unless nutritive flow is restored and presence of these mismatches have been proposed as inclusion criteria for identifying patients most likely to benefit from therapeutic intervention. Understanding the technical aspects of PWI may improve comprehension of the capabilities and limitations of this technique.
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ABSTRACT: Perfusion imaging is a useful adjunct to anatomic imaging in numerous diagnostic and therapy-monitoring settings. One approach to perfusion imaging is to assume a convolution relationship between a local arterial input function and the tissue enhancement profile of the region of interest via a ??residue function?? and subsequently solve for this residue function. This ill-posed problem is generally solved using singular-value decomposition based approaches, and the hemodynamic parameters are solved for each voxel independently. In this paper, we present a formulation which incorporates both spatial and temporal correlations, and show through simulations that this new formulation yields higher accuracy and greater robustness with respect to image noise. We also show using rectal cancer tumor images that this new formulation results in better segregation of normal and cancerous voxels.IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging 06/2010; DOI:10.1109/TMI.2010.2043536 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Traditionally non-contrast CT has been considered the first choice imaging modality for acute stroke. Acute ischemic stroke patients presenting to the hospital within 3-hours from symptom onset and without any visible hemorrhages or large lesions on CT images are considered optimum reperfusion therapy candidates. However, non-contrast CT alone has been unable to identify best reperfusion therapy candidates outside this window. New advanced imaging techniques are now being used successfully for this purpose. Non-invasive CT or MR angiography images can be obtained during initial imaging evaluation for identification and characterization of vascular lesions, including occlusions, aneurysms, and malformations. Either CT-based perfusion imaging or MRI-based diffusion and perfusion imaging performed immediately upon arrival of a patient to the hospital helps estimate the extent of fixed core and penumbra in ischemic lesions. Patients having occlusive lesions with small fixed cores and large penumbra are preferred reperfusion therapy candidates.Current Cardiology Reports 09/2012; 14(6). DOI:10.1007/s11886-012-0315-5
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ABSTRACT: Perfusão por ressonância magnética na avaliação das lesões focais neoplásicas e infecciosas do encéfalo Resumo A ressonância magnética (RM) é o método de diagnóstico por imagem de escolha na avaliação encefálica, entretanto as técnicas convencionais de RM podem apresentar limitações por fornecerem somente parâmetros qualitativos ou anatômicos. Nas últimas décadas, têm surgido novas técnicas complementares de RM que fornecem parâmetros quantitativos proporcionando informações funcionais ou metabólico-bioquímicas. A perfusão é atualmente uma destas técnicas que vem se apresentando como uma importante ferramenta na neurorradiologia. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar uma revisão sobre o papel da seqüência de perfusão por RM na avaliação das lesões focais neoplásicas e infecciosas, únicas ou múltiplas, do encéfalo. O estudo da perfusão encefálica pode ser realizado como método complementar às técnicas convencionais de RM, permitindo o acesso aos parâmetros hemodinâmicos de uma maneira não invasiva e demonstrando o grau de angiogênese das lesões sendo, portanto, útil na diferenciação entre lesões neoplásicas e infecciosas, tumor primário e metástase única e no seguimento pós-tratamento para a diferenciação entre recidiva tumoral e radionecrose, através da demonstração da presença ou ausência de hiperperfusão. Palavras-chave: perfusão, ressonância magnética, encéfalo, neoplasias, infecção. Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard method for brain assessment however the conventional MRI techniques may present limitations by only providing qualitative or anatomic parameters. Over recent decades, new complementary MRI techniques have been developed that supply quantitative parameters providing functional or metabolic-biochemical data. Perfusion-weighted imaging, one of these techniques, has become a powerful tool in neuroradiology. The goal of this article is to present a review about the role of perfusion-weighted MRI in the evaluation of solitary or multiple, neoplastic and infectious, focal brain lesions. Brain perfusion studies can be achieved as a complementary method to conventional MRI techniques to provide hemodynamic parameters using a non-invasive technique. This method demonstrates the degree of angiogenesis of lesions and is thus useful in the differentiation between neoplastic and infectious lesions, primary tumors and solitary metastases and in the post-treatment follow up to differentiate between tumoral recurrence and radionecrosis by identifying the presence or absence of hyperperfusion.