Rothenberg ML, LaFleur B, Levy DE, Washington MK, Morgan-Meadows SL, Ramanathan RK, Berlin JD, Benson III AB, Coffey RJRandomized phase II trial of the clinical and biological effects of two dose levels of gefitinib in patients with recurrent colorectal adenocarcinoma. J Clin Oncol 23: 9265-9274

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 18.43). 01/2006; 23(36):9265-74. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2005.03.0536
Source: PubMed


The clinical objective of this trial was to evaluate gefitinib in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that had progressed despite prior treatment. Serial tumor biopsies were performed when possible and analyzed for activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Serial serum samples were measured for amphiregulin and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha).
One hundred fifteen patients were randomly assigned to receive gefitinib 250 or 500 mg orally once a day. One hundred ten patients were assessable for clinical efficacy. Biologic evaluation was performed on paired tumor samples from 28 patients and correlated with clinical outcome.
Median progression-free survival was 1.9 months (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.1 months) and 4-month progression-free survival rate was 13% +/- 5%. One patient achieved a radiographic partial response (RR = 1%; 95% CI, 0.01% to 5%). Median survival was 6.3 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 8.2 months). The most common adverse events were skin rash, diarrhea, and fatigue. In the biopsy cohort, expression of total or activated EGFR, activated Akt, activated MAP-kinase, or Ki67 did not decrease following 1 week of gefitinib. However, a trend toward decreased post-treatment levels of activated Akt and Ki67 was observed in patients with a PFS higher than the median, although these did not reach the .05 level of significance.
Gefitinib is inactive as a single agent in patients with previously treated colorectal cancer. In tumor samples, gefitinib did not inhibit activation of its proximal target, EGFR. Trends were observed for inhibition of downstream regulators of cellular survival and proliferation in patients achieving longer progression-free survival.

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    • "All the above-mentioned phase 2 trials with gefitinib as first line or maintenance therapy in mCRC showed increased toxicities of gefitinib. Various phase 2 trials are being conducted on gefitinib in mCRC, and results are available from few trials [38, 39] (Table 3). "
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    ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy among men and women in the United States, and the 5-year survival rate remains poor despite recent advances in chemotherapy and targeted agents. The mainstay of therapy for advanced disease remains the cytotoxic chemotherapy including 5-FU, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin. The USFDA approval and introduction of targeted therapies, including cetuximab and panitumumab (monoclonal antibodies targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)) and bevacizumab (monoclonal antibody targeting the vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF)), has improved the median survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer to around 24 months. Clearly, better and more efficacious drugs are needed, and target-specific agents remain the future of cancer treatment. On this front, rapid advances are being made, which are likely to change the future of the management of metastatic colorectal cancer. However, absence of specific biomarkers for the use of targeted agents, in the subset of population who will benefit from the treatment, remains a major drawback. In this paper, we review agents that are in phases 1 and 2 clinical development, specifically targeting the EGFR and its subsequent downstream pathways.
    10/2012; 2012:387172. DOI:10.1155/2012/387172
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    • "In a series of 28 metastatic colorectal patients treated with gefitinib monotherapy, biologic evaluation of total and activated EGR, activated AKT, MAP-kinase and Ki 67 on paired pre- and 1 week post- treatment tumour samples could not confirm a gefitinib-induced decreased expression of these molecular markers [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical observations suggested that a non negligible proportion of patients, ranging from 40% to 70%, does not seem to benefit from the use of anti-EGFR targeted antibodies even in the absence of a mutation of the K- RAS gene. The EGFR pathway activation via the Ras-Raf-MAP-kinase and the protein-serine/threonine kinase AKT could determine resistance to anti-EGFR treatment. We tested the interaction between phosphorylated AKT and MAPK expression in colorectal tumours and corresponding metastases and global outcome in K-RAS wild type patients receiving irinotecan-cetuximab. Seventy-two patients with histologically proven metastatic colorectal cancer, treated with Irinotecan and Cetuximab based chemotherapy, were eligible for our analysis.In metastases pAKT correlated with RR (9% vs. 58%, p = 0.004), PFS (2.3 months vs.9.2 months p < 0.0001) and OS (6.1 months vs.26.7 months p < 0.0001) and pMAPK correlated with RR (10% vs., 47%, p = 0.002), PFS (2.3 months vs.8.6 months p < 0.0001) and OS (7.8 months vs.26 months p = 0.0004). At multivariate analysis pAKT and pMAPK in metastases were able to independently predict PFS. pAKT in metastases independently correlated with RR as well pAKT and pMAPK expression in metastases may modulate the activity of EGFR-targeted antibodies. We could speculate that in patients with pAKT and pMAPK metastases expression targeting these factors may be crucial.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 04/2012; 10(1):71. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-10-71 · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    • "EGFR is a 170 KDa transmembrane glycoprotein situated on the cell surface, which is activated by binding of its specific ligands, including epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor α (TGFα)[5]. . An EGF-specific receptor was first found on surface of fibroblasts in 1975 [6], but only relatively recently have mutations affecting EGFR been discovered to be involved in the development of cancers [7]. EGFR (also known as ERBB1/HER1) is a member of a family of receptor proteins that contains 3 other members: HER2/ERBB2, HER3/ERBB3, and HER4/ERBB4. "
    Esophageal Cancer - Cell and Molecular Biology, Biomarkers, Nutrition and Treatment, 03/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0223-6
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