Randomized phase II trial of the clinical and biological effects of two dose levels of gefitinib in patients with recurrent colorectal adenocarcinoma.
ABSTRACT The clinical objective of this trial was to evaluate gefitinib in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer that had progressed despite prior treatment. Serial tumor biopsies were performed when possible and analyzed for activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Serial serum samples were measured for amphiregulin and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGFalpha).
One hundred fifteen patients were randomly assigned to receive gefitinib 250 or 500 mg orally once a day. One hundred ten patients were assessable for clinical efficacy. Biologic evaluation was performed on paired tumor samples from 28 patients and correlated with clinical outcome.
Median progression-free survival was 1.9 months (95% CI, 1.8 to 2.1 months) and 4-month progression-free survival rate was 13% +/- 5%. One patient achieved a radiographic partial response (RR = 1%; 95% CI, 0.01% to 5%). Median survival was 6.3 months (95% CI, 5.1 to 8.2 months). The most common adverse events were skin rash, diarrhea, and fatigue. In the biopsy cohort, expression of total or activated EGFR, activated Akt, activated MAP-kinase, or Ki67 did not decrease following 1 week of gefitinib. However, a trend toward decreased post-treatment levels of activated Akt and Ki67 was observed in patients with a PFS higher than the median, although these did not reach the .05 level of significance.
Gefitinib is inactive as a single agent in patients with previously treated colorectal cancer. In tumor samples, gefitinib did not inhibit activation of its proximal target, EGFR. Trends were observed for inhibition of downstream regulators of cellular survival and proliferation in patients achieving longer progression-free survival.
- SourceAvailable from: Andrea Bertotti[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: EGF receptor (EGFR)-targeted monoclonal antibodies are effective in a subset of metastatic colorectal cancers. Inevitably, all patients develop resistance, which occurs through emergence of KRAS mutations in approximately 50% of the cases. We show that amplification of the MET proto-oncogene is associated with acquired resistance in tumors that do not develop KRAS mutations during anti-EGFR therapy. Amplification of the MET locus was present in circulating tumor DNA before relapse was clinically evident. Functional studies show that MET activation confers resistance to anti-EGFR therapy both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, in patient-derived colorectal cancer xenografts, MET amplification correlated with resistance to EGFR blockade, which could be overcome by MET kinase inhibitors. These results highlight the role of MET in mediating primary and secondary resistance to anti-EGFR therapies in colorectal cancer and encourage the use of MET inhibitors in patients displaying resistance as a result of MET amplification.Cancer Discovery 06/2013; · 10.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An impressive array of therapeutic biological agents is currently being studied in the treatment of colorectal and other cancers. In advanced colorectal cancer, the majority of evidence currently available supporting the use of biological agents outside clinical trials involves the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which are epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors, and the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. Ongoing studies are underway to see if benefits are transferable into the adjuvant setting. The role of small molecules that inhibit the EGFR and VEGF receptors in colorectal cancer is yet to be determined. This article reviews the current clinical evidence regarding the use of biological agents in colorectal cancer and the potential impact on day-to-day management of this common clinical condition.Targeted Oncology 04/2012; 3(2):59-69. · 2.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in industrialized countries. Chemoprevention is a promising approach, but studies demonstrating their usefulness in large populations are still needed. Among several compounds with chemopreventive ability, cyclooxygenase inhibitors have received particular attention. However, these agents are not without side effects, which must be weighed against their beneficial actions. Early diagnosis is critical in the management of CRC patients, because, in early stages, surgery is curative in >90% of cases. If diagnosis occurs at stages II and III, which is often the case, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy before surgery are, in a few cases, recommended. Because of the high risk of recurrence in advanced cancers, chemotherapy is maintained after tumor resection. Chemotherapy is also indicated when the patient has metastases and in advanced cancer located in the rectum. In the last decade, the use of anticancer drugs in monotherapy or in combined regimens has markedly increased the survival of patients with CRC at stages III and IV. Although the rate of success is higher than in other gastrointestinal tumors, adverse effects and development of chemoresistance are important limitations to pharmacological therapy. Genetic profiling regarding mechanisms of chemoresistance are needed to carry out individualized prediction of the lack of effectiveness of pharmacological regimens. This would minimize side effects and prevent the selection of aggressive, cross-resistant clones, as well as avoiding undesirable delays in the use of the most efficient therapeutic approaches to treat these patients.Drug Metabolism Reviews 05/2012; 44(2):148-72. · 5.54 Impact Factor