Geographic Distribution and Breeding Site Preference of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Cameroon, Central Africa
ABSTRACT Presence in Cameroon of the recently introduced Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) in association with the indigenous Aedes aegypti (L.) raises public heath concerns because it might alter the risk of arbovirus transmission. The breeding site and distribution of the two Stegomyia species are updated and reported following entomological surveys carried out in 22 localities throughout Cameroon, with a total of 1,353 containers with water visited. Ae. aegypti was found in every location sampled, showing higher infestation rates in northern Cameroon. Breeding populations of Ae. albopictus were observed in all 19 southern localities, up to the Adamaoua mountains, but the species was not recorded further north. In the area where both species are present, they were often sampled in the same larval developmental sites, suggesting convergent habitat segregation. The most frequently encountered artificial and natural breeding sites were used tires, discarded tins and plastic containers, abandoned car parts, brick holes, dead leaves on the ground, tree holes, and rock pools. Further monitoring of the demographic as well as geographic expansion of Ae. albopictus in this Afrotropical environment and its relationships with indigenous Ae. aegypti should provide insight into the biology of this highly invasive species and help to implement arboviruses surveillance programs in the area.
SourceAvailable from: Mirdad Kazanji
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ABSTRACT: Background The presence of the recently introduced primary dengue virus vector mosquito Aedes aegypti in Nepal, in association with the likely indigenous secondary vector Aedes albopictus, raises public health concerns. Chikungunya fever cases have also been reported in Nepal, and the virus causing this disease is also transmitted by these mosquito species. Here we report the results of a study on the risk factors for the presence of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors, their elevational ceiling of distribution, and climatic determinants of their abundance in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected immature stages of mosquitoes during six monthly cross-sectional surveys covering six administrative districts along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal that extended from Birgunj (80 m above sea level [asl]) to Dhunche (highest altitude sampled: 2,100 m asl). The dengue vectors Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus were commonly found up to 1,350 m asl in Kathmandu valley and were present but rarely found from 1,750 to 2,100 m asl in Dhunche. The lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was commonly found throughout the study transect. Physiographic region, month of collection, collection station and container type were significant predictors of the occurrence and co-occurrence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The climatic variables rainfall, temperature, and relative humidity were significant predictors of chikungunya and dengue virus vectors abundance. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that chikungunya and dengue virus vectors have already established their populations up to the High Mountain region of Nepal and that this may be attributed to the environmental and climate change that has been observed over the decades in Nepal. The rapid expansion of the distribution of these important disease vectors in the High Mountain region, previously considered to be non-endemic for dengue and chikungunya fever, calls for urgent actions to protect the health of local people and tourists travelling in the central Himalayas.PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 03/2015; 9(3):e0003545. DOI:10.1371/journal.pntd.0003545 · 4.49 Impact Factor
Parasites & Vectors 04/2015; · 3.25 Impact Factor