Evidence for interleukin-10-mediated inhibition of cyclo- oxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin production in preterm human placenta.
ABSTRACT Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is thought to be a key cytokine for the maintenance of pregnancy. Here we examined the expression profiles of IL-10 and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the effect of IL-10 on COX-2 expression and prostaglandin release in the human placenta from preterm labor deliveries associated with chorioamnionitis.
Placental tissues from preterm labor and term labor deliveries were processed for ex vivo placental explant culture system. IL-10 expression was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis. COX-2 expression was evaluated by IHC, Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) release was measured by ELISA.
IL-10 was significantly reduced in chorioamnionitis-associated preterm labor as well as in term labor placental tissues compared with second trimester normal pregnancy samples obtained from elective terminations. Similar results were obtained with freshly isolated cytotrophoblasts from these deliveries. As expected, COX-2 mRNA was detected at significant levels in tissues from term and preterm labor deliveries compared with no labor term deliveries. Importantly, IL-10 inhibited COX-2 expression in cultured placental explants from preterm labor deliveries, but not from term labor samples. Inhibition of COX-2 expression coincided with reduced PGE2 release.
These results demonstrate the importance of IL-10 in countering inflammation associated with preterm labor, and suggest that term and preterm parturition may, in part, represent different conditions.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The decidua is known to be a major source of intrauterine PGF2α during late gestation and labor, and inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, are elevated in spontaneous preterm deliveries. In the present study, to elucidate how progesterone blocks the pathways associated with preterm birth, we determined the effects of P4 on the expression of PTGS-2 and PTGFR mRNA in human decidua fibroblast cells, as well as the genes, using microarray analysis. Senescence was induced in primary cultured human decidual cells treated with IL-1β. The IL-1β treatment implicated by microarray analysis increased gene expression levels of PTGS-2, PTGFR, NFκ-B p65, IL-17, and IL-8. In contrast, P4 + IL-1β decreased the expression levels of all of these genes in comparison to treatment with IL-1β alone (p < 0.05). IL-1β also increased the proportion of SA-β-gal-positive cells. Treatment with IL-1β also increased the p21 protein level in comparison to cells treated either with the vehicle or P4. Neither the p21 protein level nor the number of SA-β-gal-positive cells was increased in normal endometrial glandular cells by IL-1β (p < 0.05). Our studies demonstrated that P4 changes the level of gene expression in a manner that favors an anti-inflammatory milieu. Because IL-8 appears to be the cytokine whose expression is most significantly modulated by P4, further studies evaluating IL-8 as a therapeutic target are needed.Journal of Reproductive Immunology 10/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jri.2014.03.008 · 2.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Preterm birth (PTB) continues to be a global health challenge. An over-production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as an altered maternal vaginal microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation/infection-associated PTB. Lactobacillus represents the dominant species in the vagina of most healthy pregnant women. The depletion of Lactobacillus in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with an increased risk of PTB. It remains unknown at what point an aberrant vaginal microbiome composition specifically induces the cascade leading to PTB. The ability of oral or vaginal lactobacilli probiotics to reduce BV occurrence and/or dampen inflammation is being considered as a means to prevent PTB. Certain anti-inflammatory properties of lactobacilli suggest potential mechanisms. To date, clinical studies have not been powered with sufficiently high rates of PTB, but overall, there is merit in examining this promising area of clinical science.Frontiers in Immunology 02/2015; 6:62. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2015.00062
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:: To estimate the associations of change in immune response with preterm delivery, omega-3 supplementation, and fish diet. METHODS:: This was an ancillary study to a randomized trial of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation for the prevention of recurrent preterm birth. In vitro maternal peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10, and the proinflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-α, in response to stimulation with lipopolysaccharide, was measured at 16-22 weeks of gestation (baseline) and again at 25-28 weeks of gestation (follow-up) among women with prior spontaneous preterm birth. Changes in concentrations from baseline to follow-up ([INCREMENT]) were compared separately among groups defined by gestational age category at delivery, fish diet history, and omega-3 compared with placebo treatment assignment with Kruskal-Wallis tests. RESULTS:: Interleukin-10 [INCREMENT] differed by gestational age category among 292 women with paired assays. Concentrations increased less in women delivering between 35 and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation (48.9 pg/mL) compared with women delivering at term (159.3 pg/mL) and decreased by 65.2 pg/mL in women delivering before 35 weeks of gestation (P=.01). Tumor necrosis factor-α Δ also differed by gestational age category among 319 women, but the pattern was inconsistent. Those delivering between 35 and 36 6/7 weeks of gestation exhibited decreased concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α at follow-up compared with baseline (-356.0 pg/mL); concentrations increased among women delivering before 35 weeks of gestation and those delivering at term, 132.1 and 86.9 pg/mL (P=.03). Interleukin-10 Δ and tumor necrosis factor-α Δ were unaffected by either omega-3 supplementation or fish diet. CONCLUSION:: Recurrent preterm birth was associated with decreased peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte production of interleukin-10 in response to a stimulus during the second trimester. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:: ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00135902. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: II.Obstetrics and Gynecology 04/2013; 121(4):805-811. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0b013e3182878a80 · 4.37 Impact Factor