Laminopathies: multisystem dystrophy syndromes.
ABSTRACT Laminopathies are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders due to abnormalities in type A lamins and can manifest varied clinical features affecting many organs including the skeletal and cardiac muscle, adipose tissue, nervous system, cutaneous tissue, and bone. Mutations in the gene encoding lamins A and C (LMNA) cause primary laminopathies, including various types of lipodystrophies, muscular dystrophies and progeroid syndromes, mandibuloacral dysplasia, dilated cardiomyopathies, and restrictive dermopathy. The secondary laminopathies are due to mutations in ZMPSTE24 gene which encodes for a zinc metalloproteinase involved in processing of prelamin A into mature lamin A and cause mandibuloacral dysplasia and restrictive dermopathy. Skin fibroblast cells from many patients with laminopathies show a range of abnormal nuclear morphology including bleb formation, honeycombing, and presence of multi-lobulated nuclei. The mechanisms by which mutations in LMNA gene cause multisystem dystrophy are an active area of current investigation. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of marked pleiotropy in laminopathies.
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ABSTRACT: LGMD1B is an autosomal dominantly inherited, slowly progressive limb girdle muscular dystrophy, with age-related atrioventricular cardiac conduction disturbances and the absence of early contractures. The disease has been linked to chromosome 1q11–q21. Within this locus another muscular dystrophy, the autosomal dominant form of Emery–Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (AD-EDMD) has recently been mapped and the corresponding gene identified. AD-ADMD is characterized by early contractures of elbows and Achilles tendons and a humero-peroneal distribution of weakness combined with a cardiomyopathy with conduction defects. The disease gene of AD-EDMD is LMNA which encodes lamins A/C, two proteins of the nuclear envelope. In order to identify whether or not LGMD1B and AD-EDMD are allelic disorders, we carried out a search for mutations in the LMNA gene in patients with LGMD1B. For this, PCR/SSCP/sequencing screening was carried out for the 12 exons of LMNA on DNA samples of individuals from three LGMD1B families that were linked to chromosome 1q11–q21. Mutations were identified in all three LGMD1B families: a missense mutation, a deletion of a codon and a splice donor site mutation, respectively. The three mutations were identified in all affected members of the corresponding families and were absent in 100 unrelated control subjects. The present identification of mutations in the LMNA gene in LGMD1B demonstrates that LGMD1B and AD-EDMD are allelic disorders. Further analysis of phenotype–genotype relationship will help to clarify the variability of the phenotype observed in these two muscular dystrophies.01/2000;
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ABSTRACT: Sixty-five members of three families with limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) underwent neurological, cardiological, and ancillary investigations. Thirty-five individuals were diagnosed as having slowly progressive autosomal dominant LGMD. Symmetrical weakness started in the proximal lower limb muscles, and gradually upper limb muscles also became affected. Early contractures of the spine were absent. Contractures of elbows and Achilles tendons were either minimal or late. Serum creatine kinase activity was normal to moderately elevated. Electromyogram and muscle biopsy were consistent with a mild muscular dystrophy. Cardiological abnormalities, found in more than one-half the patients, included dysrhythmias and atrioventricular (AV) conduction disturbances presenting as bradycardia, syncopal attacks necessitating pacemaker implantation, and sudden cardiac death. There was a significant relation between the severity of AV conduction disturbances and age. In nearly all patients, neuromuscular symptomatology preceded cardiological involvement. The early recognition of this previously not described, autosomal dominant LGMD with life-threatening cardiac involvement offers an opportunity for therapeutic intervention.Annals of Neurology 06/1996; 39(5):636-42. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Missense mutations of the lamin A/C gene, LMNA, have been recently identified in Dunnigan-type familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD), which belongs to a heterogeneous group of rare disorders affecting adipose tissue distribution and metabolism. In this study, we sequenced the LMNA coding region from patients presenting with FPLD or other forms of lipodystrophy. We identified two heterozygous mutations in exon 8, R482W and R482Q, in FPLD patients (six families and one individual) with various clinical presentations. In addition, we found a novel heterozygous mutation (R584H) in exon 11, encoding specifically the lamin A isoform, in a patient with typical FPLD. Clinical and biochemical investigations in FPLD patients revealed that the expression and the severity of the phenotype were markedly dependent on sex, with female patients being more markedly affected. In subjects with generalized lipoatrophy, either congenital (13 case subjects) or acquired (14 case subjects), or Barraquer-Simon syndrome (2 case subjects), the entire LMNA coding sequence was normal. Although FPLD mutations are predominantly localized in exon 8 of LMNA, the finding of a novel mutation at codon 584, together with the R582H heterozygous substitution recently described, confirms that the C-terminal region specific to the lamin A isoform is a second susceptibility region for mutations in FPLD.Diabetes 12/2000; 49(11):1958-62. · 7.90 Impact Factor