Laminopathies: multisystem dystrophy syndromes.
ABSTRACT Laminopathies are a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders due to abnormalities in type A lamins and can manifest varied clinical features affecting many organs including the skeletal and cardiac muscle, adipose tissue, nervous system, cutaneous tissue, and bone. Mutations in the gene encoding lamins A and C (LMNA) cause primary laminopathies, including various types of lipodystrophies, muscular dystrophies and progeroid syndromes, mandibuloacral dysplasia, dilated cardiomyopathies, and restrictive dermopathy. The secondary laminopathies are due to mutations in ZMPSTE24 gene which encodes for a zinc metalloproteinase involved in processing of prelamin A into mature lamin A and cause mandibuloacral dysplasia and restrictive dermopathy. Skin fibroblast cells from many patients with laminopathies show a range of abnormal nuclear morphology including bleb formation, honeycombing, and presence of multi-lobulated nuclei. The mechanisms by which mutations in LMNA gene cause multisystem dystrophy are an active area of current investigation. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of marked pleiotropy in laminopathies.
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ABSTRACT: Background and Aim: Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a common cause of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in adults (35%). A number of genetic and familial forms of FSGS have been recognized. Here, we report a large pedigree with a pathogenic mutation in LMNA (R349W) in which four members were found to have biopsy-proven FSGS. The LMNA gene codes for lamins A and C, major components of the nuclear lamina which function in nuclear architecture, integrity and the regulation of gene expression. Methods: Pedigree screening and mutation analysis of LMNA gene in all family members. Renal biopsies were performed in proteinuric patients. A molecular 3D model of the familial LMNA mutation was constructed. Results: There were a total of 16 affected members from four generations, 12 of whom were found to carry the germline LMNA mutation. All affected adults had clinical features of familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) of the non-Dunnigan variety. Four patients within the same generation presented with a variable degree of renal impairment and proteinuria. Renal biopsies from all four revealed FSGS. The familial mutation is a missense change (R349W) in exon 6 of LMNA (c.1045C>T). Conclusions: We report a genetic link between LMNA and biopsy-proven FSGS in a large pedigree with FPLD. This unexpected association extends the disease spectrum of LMNA to the kidney and suggests that the physiological role of LMNA could be relevant to the maintenance of glomerular structure and function. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.Nephron Clinical Practice 09/2013; 124(1-2):31-37. DOI:10.1159/000354716 · 1.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hutchinson–Gilford Progeria Syndrome and Werner syndrome, also known as childhood- and adulthood-progeria, respectively, represent two of the best characterized human progeroid diseases with clinical features mimicking physiological aging at an early age. The discovery of their genetic basis has led to the identification of several gene mutations leading to a spectrum of progeroid phenotypes ranging from moderate and mild–severe to very aggressive forms. In parallel, the creation of disease registers and databases provided available data for the design of relatively large-scale epidemiological studies, thereby allowing a better understanding of the nature and frequency of the premature aging-associated signs and symptoms. The aim of this article is to review the most recent findings concerning the epidemiology of premature aging disorders, their genetic basis, and the most recent reports on the frequency of associated diseases.Clinical Interventions in Aging 08/2013; 8:1023-1032. DOI:10.2147/CIA.S37213 · 1.82 Impact Factor