Development and evaluation of biocompatible films of polytetrafluoroethylene polymers holding lithium phthalocyanine crystals for their use in EPR oximetry.
ABSTRACT Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry is a powerful technology that allows the monitoring of oxygenation in tissues. The measurement of tissue oxygenation can be achieved using lithium phthalocyanine (LiPc) crystals as oxygen reporters. In order to have biocompatibility for the sensing system and to assure long-term stability in the responsiveness of the system, we developed films of Teflon AF 2400 with embedded LiPc crystals. These systems can be used as retrievable inserts or parts of an implantable resonator or catheter. Atomic force microscopy studies revealed that the surface of the films was regular and planar. The response to oxygen of the sensor (EPR linewidth as a function of pO(2)) remained unchanged after implantation in mice, and was not affected by sterilization or irradiation. The use of resonators, holding LiPc embedded in Teflon AF 2400, implanted in the gastrocnemius muscle of rabbits allowed the monitoring of oxygen during several weeks. Several assays also demonstrated the biocompatibility of the system: (1) no hemolytic effect was noted; (2) no toxicity was found using the systemic injection test of extracts; (3) histological analysis in rabbit muscle in which the films were implanted for 1 week or 3 months was similar to standard polyethylene biocompatible devices. These advanced oxygen sensors are promising tools for future pre-clinical and clinical developments of EPR oximetry. These developments can be applied for other applications of biosensors where there is a need for oxygen permeable membranes.
Article: Electron paramagnetic resonance as a tool to evaluate human ovarian tissue reoxygenation after xenografting.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To develop electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry as a tool to characterize the oxygen environment in human ovarian xenografts in the early postgrafting period. Prospective experimental study. Gynecology research unit in a university hospital. Biopsies were obtained from 6 women aged 22-35 years. Frozen-thawed human ovarian tissue fragments were grafted to an intraperitoneal site in nude mice. Before grafting, lithium phthalocyanine, an oxygen reporter, was implanted inside the fragments. To monitor partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2)) by EPR on postgrafting days 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 and validate the technique by histologic assessment. A period of hypoxia was identified before day 5, followed by gradual but significant oxygenation over the next 5 days, suggesting an active process of graft revascularization. Reoxygenation kinetics in human ovarian xenotransplants were quantified. Our data validated the EPR oximetry technique as a tool to monitor pO(2) in ovarian grafting. The critical early period of hypoxia was identified, and the first steps of reoxygenation were characterized. In the future, our model may be used to evaluate new freezing and grafting protocols with the aim of reducing potential cryoinjury and initial ischemia-reperfusion damage.Fertility and sterility 09/2008; 92(1):374-81. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article reports the development and evaluation of two nano-emulsions (F45T-03/HFB and F15T-03/PFOB) containing fluorinated trityl radicals dissolved in perfluorocarbons. Preparation with a high-pressure homogenizer conferred sub-micronic size to both nano-emulsions. In vitro and in vivo EPR spectroscopy showed that the nano-emulsions had much greater oxygen sensitivity than the hydrophilic trityl, CT-03. In vivo experiments in rodents confirmed the ability of the nano-emulsions to follow the changes in oxygen concentration after induced ischemia. Histological evaluation of the tissue injected with the nano-emulsions revealed some acute toxicity for the F45T-03/HFB nano-emulsion but none for the F15T-03/PFOB nano-emulsion. These new formulations should be considered for further EPR oximetry experiments in pathophysiological situations where subtle changes in tissue oxygenation are expected.Journal of Magnetic Resonance 01/2009; 197(2):176-80. · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxia and blood flow heterogeneities are characteristics of solid tumours and are major obstacles for therapy. Exploiting the biology of nitric oxide (NO), a small radical with multiple functions, is particularly attractive to circumvent these sources of resistance and to sensitise tumour to cytotoxic treatments such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Indeed, while NO mediates angiogenic effects, NO may also promote tumour perfusion, drug delivery and oxygenation. Different strategies to deliver NO to tumours and pertaining to the FECS-EJC award laureate's work are reviewed, with a focus on their therapeutic potential. The development of techniques to monitor how and to which extent NO delivery influences the phenotype of a given tumour in a given patient is also discussed.European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 02/2009; 45(8):1352-69. · 4.12 Impact Factor