Expansion of CD1d-restricted NKT cells in patients with primary HIV-1 infection treated with interleukin-2.

CIM, Department of Medicine, F59, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, 14186 Stockholm, Sweden.
Blood (Impact Factor: 9.78). 05/2006; 107(8):3081-3. DOI: 10.1182/blood-2005-09-3636
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Innate CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are infected and lost in HIV-1-infected patients, and this could contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis because NKT cells play an important role in directing both adaptive and innate immunity. Administration of interleukin-2 (IL-2) to HIV-1-infected patients leads to substantial and sustained CD4+ T-cell expansion, involving both naive and memory cells. We investigated whether IL-2 treatment could restore the NKT cell compartment in patients with primary HIV-1 infection. We show that IL-2 combined with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) resulted in significant expansion of CD1d-restricted NKT cells. Expansion occurred in both the CD4- and CD4+ subsets of NKT cells, and expanded cells expressed the CD161 maturation marker while expression of the HIV coreceptor CCR5 was reduced. These data indicate that IL-2 treatment in combination with effective ART is beneficial for the restoration of innate NKT cell immunity in patients with primary HIV-1 infection.

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