Inadequacies of the current American Joint Committee on cancer staging system for prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT Two major objectives of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system are to ensure appropriate treatments for patients and to determine prognosis. AJCC stage for distant prostate cancer includes patients with regional lymph node involvement. In the current study, the authors assessed whether patients with lymph node involvement and patients with distant metastasis, as determined using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) staging system, had similar treatment and survival duration and, thus, were grouped together appropriately in the AJCC system.
In total, 4141 patients were selected from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center's Tumor Registry who initially had registered at the center between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2001, with a diagnosis of prostate cancer; had received no treatment before presentation; and had received treatment at the center. Patients with unknown stage and patients with any other primary malignancies were excluded. Descriptive analyses of demographic and disease variables were performed. Using SEER stage groups, survival analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed.
Treatments differed between patients with lymph node involvement and patients with distant metastasis. The median survival was 134 months for patients with lymph node involvement and 42 months for patients with distant metastasis. When these 2 groups were combined, as in the AJCC scheme, the median survival was 86 months.
The treatment and median survival of patients with lymph node involvement differed substantially from those of patients with distant metastasis. The current AJCC scheme for prostate cancer appeared to be inappropriate when considering its purpose, and the authors concluded that it should be revised.
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ABSTRACT: To combine the clinical data from 3 academic institutions that serve as centers of excellence for the surgical treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer and develop a multi-institutional model combining serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, clinical stage, and Gleason score to predict pathological stage for men with clinically localized prostate cancer. In this update, we have combined clinical and pathological data for a group of 4133 men treated by several surgeons from 3 major academic urologic centers within the United States. Multinomial log-linear regression was performed for the simultaneous prediction of organ-confined disease, isolated capsular penetration, seminal vesicle involvement, or pelvic lymph node involvement. Bootstrap estimates of the predicted probabilities were used to develop nomograms to predict pathological stage. Additional bootstrap analyses were then obtained to validate the performance of the nomograms. A total of 4133 men who had undergone radical retropubic prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer at The Johns Hopkins Hospital (n=3116), Baylor College of Medicine (n=782), and the University of Michigan School of Medicine (n=235) were enrolled into this study. None of the patients had received preoperative hormonal or radiation therapy. Simultaneous prediction of organ-confined disease, isolated capsular penetration, seminal vesicle involvement, or pelvic lymph node involvement using updated nomograms. Prostate-specific antigen level, TNM clinical stage, and Gleason score contributed significantly to the prediction of pathological stage (P<.001). Bootstrap estimates of the median and 95% confidence interval of the predicted probabilities are presented in the nomograms. For most cells in the nomograms, there is a greater than 25% probability of qualifying for more than one of the pathological stages. In the validation analyses, 72.4% of the time the nomograms correctly predicted the probability of a pathological stage to within 10% (organ-confined disease, 67.3%; isolated capsular penetration, 59.6%; seminal vesicle involvement, 79.6%; pelvic lymph node involvement, 82.9%). The data represent a multi-institutional modeling and validation of the clinical utility of combining PSA level measurement, clinical stage, and Gleason score to predict pathological stage for a group of men with localized prostate cancer. Clinicians can use these nomograms when counseling individual patients regarding the probability of their tumor being a specific pathological stage; this will enable patients and physicians to make more informed treatment decisions based on the probability of a pathological stage, as well as risk tolerance and the values they place on various potential outcomes.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 06/1997; 277(18):1445-51. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Because the optimal timing of the institution of antiandrogen therapy for prostate cancer is controversial, we compared immediate and delayed treatment in patients who had minimal residual disease after radical prostatectomy. Ninety-eight men who underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy and who were found to have nodal metastases were randomly assigned to receive immediate antiandrogen therapy, with either goserelin, a synthetic agonist of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or bilateral orchiectomy, or to be followed until disease progression. The patients were assessed quarterly during the first year and then semiannually. After a median of 7.1 years of follow-up, 7 of 47 men who received immediate antiandrogen treatment had died, as compared with 18 of 51 men in the observation group (P=0.02). The cause of death was prostate cancer in 3 men in the immediate-treatment group and in 16 men in the observation group (P<0.01). At the time of the last follow-up, 36 men in the immediate-treatment group (77 percent) and 9 men in the observation group (18 percent) were alive and had no evidence of recurrent disease, including undetectable serum prostate-specific antigen levels (P<0.001). In the observation group, the disease recurred in 42 men; 13 of the 36 who were treated had a complete response to local treatment or hormonal therapy (or both), 16 died of prostate cancer, and 1 died of another disease. The remaining men in this group were alive with progressive disease at the time of the last follow-up or had had a recent relapse. Except for the treatment group (immediate therapy or observation), no clinical or histologic characteristic significantly influenced the outcome. Immediate antiandrogen therapy after radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy improves survival and reduces the risk of recurrence in patients with node-positive prostate cancer.New England Journal of Medicine 01/2000; 341(24):1781-8. · 51.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The generalizability of currently available estimates of survival after radical prostatectomy is theoretically limited. To obtain generalizable estimates of survival after radical prostatectomy. A population-based retrospective cohort study. Nine regions of the United States. Patients who were diagnosed with prostate cancer between 1983 and 1987 and underwent radical prostatectomy and lymph node dissection. Proportional hazards models incorporating geographical region, age, race, pathological stage, lymph node involvement, and tumor grade to identify independent correlates of disease-specific and overall survival and life table analyses to estimate 10-year survival distributions. A total of 3626 patients with a mean age of 65 years were included in the study; 92.6% were white, 54.2% had moderate-grade cancer, 60.4% had no extension beyond the prostate, and 91.2% had no lymph node involvement. Using San Francisco-Oakland, Calif, as a reference region, no other region was significantly associated with a risk of disease-specific or overall mortality. Older age and black race were independently associated with worse overall but not disease-specific survival. Higher grade, extension beyond the prostate, and lymph node involvement were independently associated with worse disease-specific and overall survival. Estimates of 10-year disease-specific survival ranged from 75% to 97% for patients with well-differentiated and moderately differentiated cancers and from 60% to 86% for patients with poorly differentiated cancers. Neither disease-specific nor overall survival varied by region, suggesting geographically uniform assessments of risk in patient selection for radical prostatectomy. Across regions, overall survival varied by patient and prostate cancer characteristics while disease-specific survival varied substantially by prostate cancer but not patient characteristics. The present analyses provide the most generalizable current estimates of survival after radical prostatectomy.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/1997; 278(1):44-6. · 29.98 Impact Factor