Inadequacies of the current American Joint Committee on cancer staging system for prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT Two major objectives of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system are to ensure appropriate treatments for patients and to determine prognosis. AJCC stage for distant prostate cancer includes patients with regional lymph node involvement. In the current study, the authors assessed whether patients with lymph node involvement and patients with distant metastasis, as determined using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) staging system, had similar treatment and survival duration and, thus, were grouped together appropriately in the AJCC system.
In total, 4141 patients were selected from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center's Tumor Registry who initially had registered at the center between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2001, with a diagnosis of prostate cancer; had received no treatment before presentation; and had received treatment at the center. Patients with unknown stage and patients with any other primary malignancies were excluded. Descriptive analyses of demographic and disease variables were performed. Using SEER stage groups, survival analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were performed.
Treatments differed between patients with lymph node involvement and patients with distant metastasis. The median survival was 134 months for patients with lymph node involvement and 42 months for patients with distant metastasis. When these 2 groups were combined, as in the AJCC scheme, the median survival was 86 months.
The treatment and median survival of patients with lymph node involvement differed substantially from those of patients with distant metastasis. The current AJCC scheme for prostate cancer appeared to be inappropriate when considering its purpose, and the authors concluded that it should be revised.
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies have shown that the positive detection rate of [(11)C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) depends on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plasma levels. This study compared PSA levels and PSA doubling time (PSADT) to predict [(11)C]choline PET/CT findings. PSADT was retrospectively calculated in 170 prostate cancer (PCa) patients with biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy who underwent [(11)C]choline PET/CT. PSADT was calculated as PSADT = ln2/m, where m is the slope of the linear regression line of the natural log of PSA values. At least three PSA measurements were used (median: 4; range: 3-16), separated by at least 3 months, each with a minimum increase of 0.20 ng/ml. PET/CT findings were validated using criteria based on histological analysis and clinical and imaging data. Statistical analysis was performed using the t test, chi-square test, analysis of variance and binary logistic regression. Regression-based coefficients were used to develop a nomogram predicting the probability of positive [(11)C]choline PET/CT and 200 bootstrap resamples were used for internal validation. The median PSA was 1.25 ng/ml (range: 0.23-48.6 ng/ml), and the median PSADT was 7.0 months (range: 0.97-45.3 months). [(11)C]choline PET/CT was positive in 75 of 170 patients (44%). PET/CT findings were validated using histological criteria (11%) and clinical and imaging criteria (89%). The overall accuracy of [(11)C]choline PET/CT was 88%. Multivariate logistic regression showed that high PSA and short PSADT were significant (p < 0.05) predictors of positive [(11)C]choline PET/CT [PSA: odds ratio (OR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.15-1.78; PSADT: OR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.04-1.21]. The percentage of patients with positive [(11)C]choline PET/CT was 27% for PSADT >6 months, 61% for PSADT between 3 and 6 months and 81% for PSADT <3 months. The percentage of patients who displayed pathological [(11)C]choline uptake in the skeleton significantly increased (p < 0.05) from 3% for PSADT >6 months to 52% for PSADT <3 months. Conversely, patients who displayed pathological [(11)C]choline uptake in the prostatectomy bed were 0% for PSADT <3 months and 17% for PSADT >6 months (p < 0.05). A nomogram based on age, PSA, PSADT, time to trigger PSA, Gleason score, pathological stage and androgen deprivation therapy demonstrated bootstrap-corrected predictive accuracy of 81%. Like PSA, PSADT is an independent predictor of [(11)C]choline PET/CT. [(11)C]choline PET/CT is very sensitive to PCa tumour growth, as reflected by PSA kinetics. PSADT should be taken into account by physicians when referring PCa patients for [(11)C]choline PET/CT.European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/2010; 37(6):1106-16. · 4.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides more detailed anatomical images of the prostate compared with the transrectal ultrasound imaging. Therefore, for the purpose of intervention in the prostate gland, diagnostic or therapeutic, MRI guidance offers a possibility of more precise targeting that may be crucial to the success of prostate interventions. However, access within the scanner is limited for manual instrument handling and the MR environment is most demanding among all imaging equipment with respect to the instrumentation used. A solution to this problem is the use of MR-compatible robots purposely designed to operate in the space and environmental restrictions inside the MR scanner allowing real-time interventions. Building an MRI-compatible robot is a very challenging engineering task because, in addition to the material restrictions that MRI instruments have, the robot requires actuators and sensors that limit the type of energies that can be used. Several important design problems have to be overcome before a successful MR-compatible robot application can be built. A number of MR-compatible robots, ranging from a simple manipulator to a fully automated system, have been developed, proposing ingenious solutions to the design challenge. Several systems have been already tested clinically for prostate biopsy and brachytherapy. As technology matures, precise image guidance for prostate interventions performed or assisted by specialized MR-compatible robotic devices may provide a uniquely accurate solution for guiding the intervention directly based on MR findings and feedback. Such an instrument would become a valuable clinical tool for biopsies directly targeting imaged tumor foci and delivering tumor-centered focal therapy.Topics in magnetic resonance imaging: TMRI 01/2009; 19(6):297-304.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate biopsy and needle-directed prostate therapies are currently performed free-handed or with needle external templates under ultrasound guidance. Direct image-guided intervention robots are modern instruments that have the potential to substantially enhance these procedures. These may increase the accuracy and repeatability with which needles are placed in the gland. The authors' group has developed a robot for precise prostate targeting that operates remotely alongside the patient in the magnetic resonance imaging scanner, as guided according to the image.Reviews in urology 02/2009; 11(1):7-15.