V600E B-Raf requires the Hsp90 chaperone for stability and is degraded in response to Hsp90 inhibitors.
ABSTRACT The Raf family includes three members, of which B-Raf is frequently mutated in melanoma and other tumors. We show that Raf-1 and A-Raf require Hsp90 for stability, whereas B-Raf does not. In contrast, mutated, activated B-Raf binds to an Hsp90-cdc37 complex, which is required for its stability and function. Exposure of melanoma cells and tumors to the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin results in the degradation of mutant B-Raf, inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, and antitumor activity. These data suggest that activated mutated B-Raf proteins are incompetent for folding in the absence of Hsp90, thus suggesting that the chaperone is required for the clonal evolution of melanomas and other tumors that depend on this mutation. Hsp90 inhibition represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of melanoma.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Neal Rosen, Apr 22, 2014
SourceAvailable from: Franco Pandolfi[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In an effort to enhance antigen-specific T cell recognition of cancer cells, we have examined numerous modulators of antigen-expression. In this report we demonstrate that twelve different Hsp90 inhibitors (iHsp90) share the ability to increase the expression of differentiation antigens and MHC Class I antigens. These iHsp90 are active in several molecular and cellular assays on a series of tumor cell lines, including eleven human melanomas, a murine B16 melanoma, and two human glioma-derived cell lines. Intra-cytoplasmic antibody staining showed that all of the tested iHsp90 increased expression of the melanocyte differentiation antigens Melan-A/MART-1, gp100, and TRP-2, as well as MHC Class I. The gliomas showed enhanced gp100 and MHC staining. Quantitative analysis of mRNA levels showed a parallel increase in message transcription, and a reporter assay shows induction of promoter activity for Melan-A/MART-1 gene. In addition, iHsp90 increased recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for Melan-A/MART-1. In contrast to direct Hsp90 client proteins, the increased levels of full-length differentiation antigens that result from iHsp90 treatment are most likely the result of transcriptional activation of their encoding genes. In combination, these results suggest that iHsp90 improve recognition of tumor cells by T cells specific for a melanoma-associated antigen as a result of increasing the expressed intracellular antigen pool available for processing and presentation by MHC Class I, along with increased levels of MHC Class I itself. As these Hsp90 inhibitors do not interfere with T cell function, they could have potential for use in immunotherapy of cancer.PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e114506. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0114506 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pharmacological induction of proteotoxic stress is rapidly emerging as a promising strategy for cancer cell-directed chemotherapeutic intervention. Here, we describe the identification of a novel drug-like heat shock response inducer for the therapeutic induction of proteotoxic stress targeting malignant human melanoma cells. Screening a focused library of compounds containing redox-directed electrophilic pharmacophores employing the Stress & Toxicity PathwayFinderTM PCR-array technology as a discovery tool, a drug-like triphenylmethane-derivative [aurin; 4-[bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)methylene]-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one] was identified as an experimental cell stress modulator that causes (i) heat shock factor transcriptional activation, (ii) upregulation of heat shock response gene expression (HSPA6, HSPA1A, DNAJB4, HMOX1), (iii) early unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling (phospho-PERK, phospho-eIF2α, CHOP), (iv) proteasome impairment with increased protein-ubiquitination, and (v) oxidative stress with glutathione depletion. Fluorescence polarization-based experiments revealed that aurin displays activity as a geldanamycin-competitive Hsp90α-antagonist, a finding further substantiated by molecular docking and ATPase inhibition analysis. Aurin exposure caused caspase-dependent cell death in a panel of human malignant melanoma cells (A375, G361, LOX-IMVI), but not in non-malignant human skin cells (Hs27 fibroblasts, HaCaT keratinocytes, primary melanocytes) undergoing the aurin-induced heat shock response without impairment of viability. Aurin-induced melanoma cell apoptosis depends on Noxa upregulation as confirmed by siRNA rescue experiments demonstrating that siPMAIP1-based target downregulation suppresses aurin-induced cell death. Taken together, our data suggest feasibility of apoptotic elimination of malignant melanoma cells using the quinone methide-derived heat shock response inducer aurin. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2014; 290(3). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.592626 · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: TRAIL has been shown to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but in some cases, certain cancer cells are resistant to this ligand. In this study, we explored the ability of representative HSP90 (heat shock protein 90) inhibitor NVP-AUY922 to overcome TRAIL resistance by increasing apoptosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The combination of TRAIL and NVP-AUY922 induced synergistic cytotoxicity and apoptosis, which was mediated through an increase in caspase activation. The treatment of NVP-AUY922 dephosphorylated JAK2 and STAT3 and decreased Mcl-1, which resulted in facilitating cytochrome c release. NVP-AUY922-mediated inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling and down-regulation of their target gene, Mcl-1, occurred in a dose and time-dependent manner. Knock down of Mcl-1, STAT3 inhibitor or JAK2 inhibitor synergistically enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest the involvement of the JAK2-STAT3-Mcl-1 signal transduction pathway in response to NVP-AUY922 treatment, which may play a key role in NVP-AUY922-mediated sensitization to TRAIL. By contrast, the effect of the combination treatments in non-transformed colon cells was minimal. We provide a clinical rationale that combining HSP90 inhibitor with TRAIL enhances therapeutic efficacy without increasing normal tissue toxicity in CRC patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Cellular Signalling 11/2014; 27(2). DOI:10.1016/j.cellsig.2014.11.013 · 4.47 Impact Factor