A Comparison of splenectomy versus intensive posttransplant antidonor blood group antibody monitoring without splenectomy in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.
ABSTRACT Although most protocols for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation have employed splenectomy, its utility is unproven. The aim of the current study was to compare the outcomes of ABO-incompatible living donor kidney transplantation with splenectomy versus a protocol involving intensive posttransplant antibody monitoring to maintain low levels of antiblood group antibody.
We retrospectively studied all ABO-incompatible living donor kidney transplants at our institution between September 1999 and November 2004 (n=34). Prior to May 2003, all patients were included in a protocol involving pretransplant plasmapheresis and splenectomy at the time of transplant (n=23). After May 2003, splenectomy was not performed and a protocol that involved pretransplant anti-CD20 antibody and a more intensive posttransplant plasmapheresis regiment aimed at maintaining low levels of antiblood group antibody during the first 2 weeks following transplantation was utilized (n=11).
Patient and graft survival was similar in the two groups. Humoral rejection occurred in 18% nonsplenectomized and 30% of splenectomized patients (P=0.68). Humoral rejection correlated with the baseline antibody titer in both groups. Individuals with elevated baseline antibody titer (> or =1:256) appear to be at high risk for humoral rejection regardless of protocol used. Antiblood group antibody levels 3 and 12 months after transplantation were similar in both groups.
Splenectomy is not essential for successful ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation, although individuals with high baseline antidonor blood group antibody titers are at high risk for humoral rejection. The use of intensive posttransplant monitoring may help prevent antibody-mediated graft damage.
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ABSTRACT: ABO-incompatible (ABOi) kidney transplantation is an established therapy, though its implementation to date has been in part limited by the requirement for additional immunosuppression. Here, we describe the outcomes of 37 patients undergoing ABOi kidney transplantation utilizing perioperative antibody depletion and receiving an identical tacrolimus-based immunosuppressive regimen to contemporaneous ABO-compatible (ABOc) recipients, with the exception that mycophenolate was commenced earlier (7-14 days pretransplant). Antibody depletion was scheduled according to baseline anti-ABO antibody titer (tube IAT method: median 1:128, range 1:8 to 1:4096). Patient and graft survival for the 37 ABOi recipients was 100% after a median 26 months (interquartile range [IQR] 18-32). Eight rejection episodes (two antibody-mediated and six cellular) in ABOi recipients were successfully treated with biopsy-proven resolution. Latest median eGFR is 50 mL/min × 1.73 m² (IQR 40-64) for ABOi patients and 54 mL/min × 1.73 m² (IQR 44-66) in the ABOc patients (p = 0.25). We conclude that ABOi transplantation can be performed successfully with perioperative antibody removal and conventional immunosuppression. This suggests that access to ABOi transplantation can include a broader range of end-stage kidney disease patients.American Journal of Transplantation 03/2011; 11(5):1016-24. · 6.19 Impact Factor
Article: Rituximab in renal transplantation.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that leads to B cell depletion. It is not licensed for use in renal transplantation but is in widespread use in ABO blood group incompatible transplantation. It is an effective treatment for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder, and is also used in both HLA antibody incompatible renal transplantation and the treatment of acute rejection. Recent evidence suggests rituximab may prevent the development of chronic antibody mediated rejection. The mechanisms underlying its effects are likely to relate both to long-term effects on plasma cell development and to the impact on B cell modulation of T cell responses. Rituximab (in multiple doses or in combination with other monoclonal antibodies and/or other immunosuppressants) may lead to an increase in infectious complications, although the evidence is not clear. Rarely, the drug can cause a cytokine release syndrome, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia. It has been related to an increased risk of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy and, recently, deaths from cardiovascular causes. Trials examining the effects of rituximab in induction therapy for compatible renal transplantation and the treatment of chronic antibody mediated rejection are ongoing. These trials should aid greater understanding of the role of B-cells in the alloresponse to renal transplantation.Transplant International 02/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: ABO blood group incompatible renal transplantation, using desensitisation procedures, is an effective strategy. Efforts have been made to reduce desensitisation: these are usually applied to all patients indiscriminately. The Guy's Hospital ABO blood group incompatible desensitisation regimen uses a tiered approach, tailoring strategy according to initial antibody titres. 62 ABO blood group incompatible living donor transplant recipients were compared with 167 recipients of blood group compatible living donor renal transplants. There were no statistically significant differences in allograft survival rates at 1 year or 3 years post-transplant, rejection in the first year post-transplant or renal function in the first 3 years post-transplant. There was a higher rate of death in ABO blood group incompatible transplant recipients - this could be associated with differences in age and HLA mismatch between the two groups. 4 ABO blood group incompatible patients experienced Antibody Mediated Rejection (no episode was associated with a rise in ABO blood group antibodies). Of the patients who received no desensitisation, or rituximab alone, none has experienced AMR or experienced allograft loss. Tailoring the use of desensitisation in ABO blood group incompatible renal transplantation according to initial ABO blood group antibody titres led to comparable results to blood group compatible transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.Transplant International 11/2013; · 3.16 Impact Factor