A Comparison of splenectomy versus intensive posttransplant antidonor blood group antibody monitoring without splenectomy in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.
ABSTRACT Although most protocols for ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation have employed splenectomy, its utility is unproven. The aim of the current study was to compare the outcomes of ABO-incompatible living donor kidney transplantation with splenectomy versus a protocol involving intensive posttransplant antibody monitoring to maintain low levels of antiblood group antibody.
We retrospectively studied all ABO-incompatible living donor kidney transplants at our institution between September 1999 and November 2004 (n=34). Prior to May 2003, all patients were included in a protocol involving pretransplant plasmapheresis and splenectomy at the time of transplant (n=23). After May 2003, splenectomy was not performed and a protocol that involved pretransplant anti-CD20 antibody and a more intensive posttransplant plasmapheresis regiment aimed at maintaining low levels of antiblood group antibody during the first 2 weeks following transplantation was utilized (n=11).
Patient and graft survival was similar in the two groups. Humoral rejection occurred in 18% nonsplenectomized and 30% of splenectomized patients (P=0.68). Humoral rejection correlated with the baseline antibody titer in both groups. Individuals with elevated baseline antibody titer (> or =1:256) appear to be at high risk for humoral rejection regardless of protocol used. Antiblood group antibody levels 3 and 12 months after transplantation were similar in both groups.
Splenectomy is not essential for successful ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation, although individuals with high baseline antidonor blood group antibody titers are at high risk for humoral rejection. The use of intensive posttransplant monitoring may help prevent antibody-mediated graft damage.
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ABSTRACT: Antibody-mediated rejection (AbAR) is increasingly recognized in the renal allograft population, and successful therapeutic regimens have been developed to prevent and treat AbAR, enabling excellent outcomes even in patients highly sensitized to the donor prior to transplant. It has become critical to develop standardized criteria for the pathological diagnosis of AbAR. This article presents international consensus criteria for and classification of AbAR developed based on discussions held at the Sixth Banff Conference on Allograft Pathology in 2001. This classification represents a working formulation, to be revisited as additional data accumulate in this important area of renal transplantation.American Journal of Transplantation 07/2003; 3(6):708-14. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The majority of preconditioning protocols developed to allow ABO-incompatible (ABOi) renal transplantation include concurrent splenectomy as a prerequisite to successful engraftment. Our center has developed a preconditioning protocol that includes plasmapheresis (PP), low-dose CMV hyperimmune globulin (CMVIg), and anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (rituximab) to allow ABOi renal transplantation without splenectomy. Our initial experience has included treatment of six recipients and successful transplantation from blood group A(1), A(2), and group B living donors. Mean (+/- SD) serum creatinine was 1.3 +/- 0.1 mg/dL among the six recipients and no episodes of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) occurred at a median follow-up of 12 months. ABO antibody titers have remained below pretreatment levels. The absence of AMR and stable allograft function in this series show the potential of this preconditioning protocol to increase ABOi renal transplantation. The use of rituximab, allowing avoidance of splenectomy, may further remove one of the significant disincentives to ABOi transplantation, and eliminate the risk of post-splenectomy infections.American Journal of Transplantation 09/2004; 4(8):1315-22. · 6.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our previous studies showed that the incidence of humoral rejection was extremely high in ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation. This result suggests that anti-A/B antibody titers directly influence the graft survival of ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. In this study, we examined the impact of preoperative anti-A/B antibody titers on the results of ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation. Sixty-seven patients underwent ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation at our institution between January 1989 and December 1995. The mean age was 34.9 years with 38 males and 29 females. Sixty-one of the 67 recipients were included in an analysis of the impact of anti-A/B antibody titer in long-term graft survival. The remaining six patients were excluded because of death with a functioning graft (three patients) and withdrawal of immunosuppression due to nonimmunological reasons (three patients) within 1 year after renal transplantation. The graft survival rate for the level of less than 1:16 in maximum IgG antibody before transplantation (n=21) at 1, 5, and 8 years was 81.0, 66.8, and 66.8%, respectively. The corresponding values for the level of 1:32-1:64 (n=33) and higher than 1:128 (n=7) were 93.9, 90.5, and 79.7%, and 42.9, 28.6, and 28.6%, respectively (log-rank test, P=0.0007). There was no significant association between maximum anti-A/B IgM titers, minimum anti-A/B IgM titers, minimum anti-A/B IgG titers, and graft survival. Preoperative maximum anti-A/B IgG titers correlated with the long-term graft survival in ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation. Thus, preoperative maximum levels of anti-A/B IgG titers are one of the good predictors of the results of ABO-incompatible living kidney transplantation.Transplantation 12/2000; 70(9):1331-5. · 3.78 Impact Factor