Direct regulation of myelin protein zero expression by the Egr2 transactivator.
ABSTRACT During myelination of the peripheral nervous system, the myelin protein zero (Mpz) gene is induced to produce the most abundant protein component (P(0)) of mature myelin. Although the basal embryonic expression of Mpz in Schwann cells has been attributed to regulation by Sox10, the molecular mechanism for the profound up-regulation of this gene during myelination has not been established. In this study, we have identified a highly conserved element within the first intron of the Mpz gene, which contains binding sites for the early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox20) transcription factor, a critical regulator of peripheral nerve myelination. Egr2 can transactivate the intron element, and the induction is blocked by two known repressors of Egr2 activity. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we find that Egr2 binds in vivo to the intron element, but not to the Mpz promoter. Known inducers of Mpz expression such as forskolin and insulin-like growth factor-1 also activate the element in an Egr2-dependent manner. In addition, we found that Egr2 can act synergistically with Sox10 to activate this intron element, suggesting a model in which cooperative interactions between Egr2 and Sox10 mediate a large increase in Mpz expression to the high levels found in myelinating Schwann cells.
- SourceAvailable from: Seneca L Bessling[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The transcription factor SOX10 has essential roles in neural crest-derived cell populations, including myelinating Schwann cells-specialized glial cells responsible for ensheathing axons in the peripheral nervous system. Importantly, SOX10 directly regulates the expression of genes essential for proper myelin function. To date, only a handful of SOX10 target loci have been characterized in Schwann cells. Addressing this lack of knowledge will provide a better understanding of Schwann cell biology and candidate loci for relevant diseases such as demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. We have identified a highly-conserved SOX10 binding site within an alternative promoter at the SH3-domain kinase binding protein 1 (Sh3kbp1) locus. The genomic segment identified at Sh3kbp1 binds to SOX10 and displays strong promoter activity in Schwann cells in vitro and in vivo. Mutation of the SOX10 binding site ablates promoter activity, and ectopic expression of SOX10 in SOX10-negative cells promotes the expression of endogenous Sh3kbp1. Combined, these data reveal Sh3kbp1 as a novel target of SOX10 and raise important questions regarding the function of SH3KBP1 isoforms in Schwann cells.Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 02/2012; 49(2):85-96. · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported that addition of extracellular matrix (ECM) extracts to rat Schwann cell-dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGN) co-cultures activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38, whereas inhibition blocked myelination. Here, we used p38 pharmacological inhibitors and gene silencing to assess their effects on downstream kinases and key transcription factors. We show that p38α regulates expression of the master transcription factor, Krox-20, required for the onset of myelination in Schwann cell-DRGNs, as assessed by immunocytochemistry and qRT-PCR. p38 activity is also required for the expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p27(kip1) , associated with Schwann cell differentiation. Three potential effectors of p38 were explored: MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MK2), mitogen and stress-activated protein kinase-1 (MSK-1), and the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB). Inhibition of MK2 with CMPD1 or gene knockdown with siRNAs reduced numbers of Krox-20-positive Schwann cells and expression of myelin proteins MBP and MAG. ECM activated CREB and increased Krox-20 expression, whereas CREB1 gene silencing reduced Krox-20. Furthermore, two nonselective inhibitors of MSK-1 (H89 and R0-318820) decreased ECM-induced CREB phosphorylation and, similar to anti-MSK-1 siRNAs, reduced Krox-20-positive cells. In addition, p38 modulated the expression of two transcription factors involved in the regulation of Krox-20 [suppressed cAMP-inducible protein (SCIP) and Sox10], but not Sox2, an antagonist of Krox-20. Collectively, our results show that p38 primarily directs Schwann cell differentiation and peripheral myelination by regulating Krox-20 expression through its downstream effectors, MK2 and MSK-1/CREB, and transcription factors SCIP and Sox10.Glia 04/2012; 60(7):1130-44. · 5.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Myelin is essential for the rapidity of saltatory nerve conduction, and also provides trophic support for axons to prevent axonal degeneration. Two critical determinants of myelination are SOX10 and EGR2/KROX20. SOX10 is required for specification of Schwann cells from neural crest, and is required at every stage of Schwann cell development. Egr2/Krox20 expression is activated by axonal signals in myelinating Schwann cells, and is required for cell cycle arrest and myelin formation. To elucidate the integrated function of these two transcription factors during peripheral nerve myelination, we performed in vivo ChIP-Seq analysis of myelinating peripheral nerve. Integration of these binding data with loss-of-function array data identified a range of genes regulated by these factors. In addition, although SOX10 itself regulates Egr2/Krox20 expression, leading to coordinate activation of several major myelin genes by the two factors, there is a large subset of genes that are activated independent of EGR2. Finally, the results identify a set of SOX10-dependent genes that are expressed in early Schwann cell development, but become subsequently repressed by EGR2/KROX20.Nucleic Acids Research 04/2012; 40(14):6449-60. · 8.28 Impact Factor