Article

A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of OROS Methylphenidate in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

Clinical and Research Program in Pediatric Psychopharmacology at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Biological Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 10.25). 06/2006; 59(9):829-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.09.011
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of once-daily OROS methylphenidate (MPH) in the treatment of adults with DSM-IV attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
We conducted a randomized, 6-week, placebo-controlled, parallel-design study of OROS MPH in 141 adult subjects with DSM-IV ADHD, using standardized instruments for diagnosis. OROS MPH or placebo was initiated at 36 mg/day and titrated to optimal response, depending on efficacy and tolerability, up to 1.3 mg/kg/day.
Treatment with OROS MPH was associated with clinically and statistically significant reductions in DSM-IV symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity relative to subjects treated with placebo. At endpoint, 66% of subjects (n = 44) receiving OROS MPH and 39% of subjects (n = 29) [corrected] receiving placebo attained our a priori definition of response of much or very much improved on the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale plus a >30% reduction in Adult ADHD Investigator System Report Scale score. OROS MPH was associated with small but statistically significant increases in systolic blood pressure (3.5 +/- 11.8 mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (4.0 +/- 8.5 mm Hg), and heart rate (4.5 +/- 10.5 bpm).
These results show that treatment with OROS MPH in daily doses of up to 1.3 mg/kg/day was effective in the treatment of adults with ADHD. Because of the potential for increases in blood pressure and heart rate, subjects receiving treatment with MPH should be monitored for changes in blood pressure parameters during treatment.

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    • "Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common chronic psychiatric disorder, characterized by a pattern of developmentally inappropriate inattention, motor restlessness and impulsivity, which affects between 3 and 7% of school age children, according to DSM-IV criteria (American Psychiatric Association, 1994; Polanczyk et al., 2007). Prospective follow-up studies found that approximately 50% of children with ADHD show symptoms that continue into adulthood, and when left untreated, are associated with substance abuse, depression, unemployment and criminal offenses (Biederman et al., 2006; Molina et al., 2009). However, the precise neurobiological mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of ADHD are currently unknown. "
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    ABSTRACT: Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are highly comorbid, and both disorders share executive function deficits. Accumulating evidence suggests that ASD patients have significantly lower peripheral oxytocin (OXT) levels compared with their normal counterparts, and that the repetitive behavior seen in ASD is related to abnormalities in the OXT system. In this study, we investigated whether serum levels of OXT are altered in pediatric patients with ADHD. We measured serum OXT levels: drug naive ADHD (n=23), medicated ADHD (n=13), and age- and sex- matched, neurotypical controls (n=22). Patients were evaluated using the ADHD-RS. Serum levels of OXT in total subjects with ADHD were significantly decreased compared with those of neurotypical controls, and serum levels of OXT in drug naive ADHD patients were significantly lower than those in medicated ADHD patients. Interestingly, there was a significant negative correlation between serum OXT levels and ADHD-RS total scores, as well as ADHD-RS inattentive scores in all ADHD patients. In conclusion, this study suggests that decreased levels of OXT may play a role in the pathophysiology of patients with ADHD and its inherent inattentiveness. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
    06/2015; 107. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.05.029
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    • "The diagnosis is based on the same DSM-IV criteria that are applied in children (Biederman et al. 2006; Faraone and Biederman 2005 "
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionMethylphenidate is a piperidine derivative structurally and pharmacologically similar to amphetamine. Methylphenidate is indicated for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 6 years of age and over when remedial measures alone prove insufficient. In adults, its indication, except in narcolepsy, is not defined. Methylphenidate received regulatory approval almost sixty years ago with a first registration in Switzerland in October 1954.ObjectiveTo evaluate the off-label use of methylphenidate and its characteristics from a database of spontaneous reports.MethodsThis study analysed data from the French Pharmacovigilance Database of adverse drug reactions spontaneously reported by health professionals from 1985 to December 2011. Off-label use was evaluated according to age.ResultsIn the French Pharmacovigilance database, 181 cases of adverse drug reactions were reported with methylphenidate. Neuropsychiatric effects were the most frequent adverse event reported (41%) followed by cardiovascular and cutaneous side effects (14%). 143 reports concerned children (113 boys, 30 girls, mean age 10.6 ± 3.3 years) of which 46 (30%) were off-label uses. There were 38 adults (20 men, 18 women), of which 32 (88%) off-label use. In adults, methylphenidate was prescribed for depression, and this practice was associated with serious adverse events of drug dependence, overdose and suicide attempt. Overall, off-label use was detected in 43% (78/181) of all cases reported.ConclusionMore than 40% of the patients with drug reactions received methylphenidate for off-label indications. Additional long-term exposures and independent clinical studies are necessary to establish the long-term profile safety of methylphenidate.
    SpringerPlus 06/2014; 3:286. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-3-286
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    • "The worldwide prevalence of children with ADHD is 3 to 5% (Solanto, 2001). Prospective follow-up studies estimate that about 50% of children with ADHD have symptoms that continue into adulthood and, when left untreated, are associated with substance abuse, depression, unemployment, and criminal offenses (Biederman et al., 2006a; Molina et al., 2009). ADHD has long been viewed as a neurobiological disorder of the prefrontal cortex and its connections. "
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is neurobehavioral disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity and impaired reward system function, such as delay aversion and low reward sensitivity. The pharmacological treatment for ADHD includes methylphenidate (MPH), or osmotic release oral system-MPH (OROS-MPH), which increases extrasynaptic dopamine and noradrenaline levels by blocking their reuptake. Although previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies revealed that acute treatment with MPH alters activation of the nucleus accumbens during delay aversion in children and adolescents with ADHD, the effects a relatively long period of OROS-MPH treatment on delay aversion as well as reward sensitivity remain unclear. Thus, we evaluated brain activation with fMRI during a reward sensitivity paradigm that consists of high monetary reward and low monetary reward conditions before and after a 3-month treatment with OROS-MPH in 17 children and adolescents with ADHD (mean age, 13.3 ± 2.2) and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (mean age, 13.0 ± 1.9). We found that before treatment there was decreased activation of the nucleus accumbens and thalamus in patients with ADHD during only the low monetary reward condition, which was improved to same level as those of the healthy controls after the treatment. The observed change in brain activity was associated with improved ADHD symptom scores, which were derived from Japanese versions of the ADHD rating scale-IV. These results suggest that treatment with OROS-MPH for a relatively long period is effective in controlling reward sensitivity in children and adolescents with ADHD.
    03/2013; 2:366-76. DOI:10.1016/j.nicl.2013.03.004
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