Short-Term Effect of Eggs on Satiety in Overweight and Obese Subjects

Department of Psychology, Saint Louis University, Missouri, USA.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.45). 01/2006; 24(6):510-5. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2005.10719497
Source: PubMed


To test the hypotheses that among overweight and obese participants, a breakfast consisting of eggs, in comparison to an isocaloric equal-weight bagel-based breakfast, would induce greater satiety, reduce perceived cravings, and reduce subsequent short-term energy intake.
Thirty women with BMI's of at least 25 kg/M2 between the ages of 25 to 60 y were recruited to participate in a randomized crossover design study in an outpatient clinic setting.
Following an overnight fast, subjects consumed either an egg or bagel-based breakfast followed by lunch 3.5 h later, in random order two weeks apart. Food intake was weighed at breakfast and lunch and recorded via dietary recall up to 36 h post breakfast. Satiety was assessed using the Fullness Questionnaire and the State-Trait Food Cravings Questionnaire, state version.
During the pre-lunch period, participants had greater feelings of satiety after the egg breakfast, and consumed significantly less energy (kJ; 2405.6 +/- 550.0 vs 3091.3 +/- 445.5, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p < 0.0001), grams of protein (16.8 +/- 4.2 vs 22.3 +/- 3.4, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p < 0.0001), carbohydrate 83.1 +/- 20.2 vs 110.9 +/- 18.7, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p < 0.0001), and fat 19.4 +/- 5.1 vs 22.8 +/- 3.2, Egg vs Bagel breakfasts, p < 0.0001) for lunch. Energy intake following the egg breakfast remained lower for the entire day (p < 0.05) as well as for the next 36 hours (p < 0.001).
Compared to an isocaloric, equal weight bagel-based breakfast, the egg-breakfast induced greater satiety and significantly reduced short-term food intake. The potential role of a routine egg breakfast in producing a sustained caloric deficit and consequent weight loss, should be determined.

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    • "Eggs are a good source of proteins. Recently, eggs have been shown to enhance satiety and decrease energy intake when consumed for breakfast [10] resulting in higher weight loss during energy restriction [11]. There is limited and inconsistent evidence on the effect of egg proteins on appetite regulation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Because the source of protein may play a role in its satiating effect, we investigated the effect of different proteins on satiation and short-term satiety. Two randomized single-blind cross-over studies were completed. In the first study, we investigated the effect of a preload containing 20 g of casein, whey, pea protein, egg albumin or maltodextrin vs. water control on food intake 30 min later in 32 male volunteers (25 ± 4 yrs, BMI 24 ± 0.4 kg/m(2)). Subjective appetite was assessed using visual analogue scales at 10 min intervals after the preload. Capillary blood glucose was measured every 30 min during 2 hrs before and after the ad libitum meal. In the second study, we compared the effect of 20 g of casein, pea protein or whey vs. water control on satiation in 32 male volunteers (25 ± 0.6 yrs, BMI 24 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)). The preload was consumed as a starter during an ad libitum meal and food intake was measured. The preloads in both studies were in the form of a beverage. In the first study, food intake was significantly lower only after casein and pea protein compared to water control (P = 0.02; 0.04 respectively). Caloric compensation was 110, 103, 62, 56 and 51% after casein, pea protein, whey, albumin and maltodextrin, respectively. Feelings of satiety were significantly higher after casein and pea protein compared to other preloads (P < 0.05). Blood glucose response to the meal was significantly lower when whey protein was consumed as a preload compared to other groups (P < 0.001). In the second study, results showed no difference between preloads on ad libitum intake. Total intake was significantly higher after caloric preloads compared to water control (P < 0.05). Casein and pea protein showed a stronger effect on food intake compared to whey when consumed as a preload. However, consuming the protein preload as a starter of a meal decreased its impact on food intake as opposed to consuming it 30 min before the meal.
    Nutrition Journal 12/2011; 10(1):139. DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-10-139 · 2.60 Impact Factor
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    • "Research over the past decade has shown no correlation between cholesterol consumption and risk of coronary heart disease or stroke, and this is no longer considered to be a causative factor in coronary heart disease through its association with serum cholesterol (Hu et al. 1999, Nakamura et al. 2006, Gray and Griffin 2009). In relation to satiety, consumption of eggs at breakfast has previously been shown to correlate with greater satiety scores and reduction of short-term energy intake (Holt et al. 1995, Vander Wal et al. 2005, 2008, Ratliff et al. 2010). Although the effects of eggs consumed at breakfast on satiety have been investigated, equivalent studies investigating consumption at lunch have not been conducted. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of eggs consumed for lunch on satiety, satiation and subsequent energy intake at the next meal. Thirty-one healthy male and female subjects participated in a randomized, three-way, crossover study. Following consumption of a standard breakfast, participants were asked to consume three isocaloric test lunches: omelette, jacket potato and chicken sandwich. Subjective measures of satiety were recorded using visual analog scales at regular intervals throughout the day. Energy intake at the next meal was assessed 4 h after lunch with an ad libitum meal. The egg lunch showed a significantly stronger satiating effect compared with the jacket potato meal. No effect on energy intake was seen. These data indicate that consumption of an omelette meal consumed at lunch could increase satiety to a greater extent than a carbohydrate meal and may facilitate reduction of energy consumption between meals.
    International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 04/2011; 62(6):593-9. DOI:10.3109/09637486.2011.566212 · 1.21 Impact Factor
    • "Although the egg group reported that they felt ''full'', ''satisfied'' and ''wanted to eat less'', levels of appetite hormones were similar to those seen in the control group. Vander Wal et al. (2005) provided more conclusive findings, reporting that an eggbreakfast induced both greater feelings of satiety while reducing energy intake throughout the day and over the following 36 h. In terms of body weight, Vander Wal et al. (2008) identified that body weight reduced by 65 per cent (BMI reduced by 61 per cent) when 152 adults ate two eggs daily for breakfast as part of an energy deficit diet over an eight-week period. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – Advice about the role of eggs in the diet has changed several times over the decades. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate published evidence reporting associations between egg consumption, egg nutrients and health. Design/methodology/approach – The scientific literature was searched using Medline and key words relevant to eggs and egg nutrients. In addition, a new secondary analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) was undertaken to examine nutritional and health differences between consumers and non-consumers of eggs. Findings – Eggs are a rich source of protein and several essential nutrients, particularly vitamin D, vitamin B12, selenium and choline. Emerging evidence suggests that eating eggs is associated with satiety, weight management and better diet quality. In addition, antioxidants found in egg yolk may help prevent age-related macular degeneration. The secondary analysis showed that regular egg consumers with a low red and processed meat (RPM) intake ate healthier diets and had a better micronutrient status than those who did not eat eggs but who had a high RPM intake. It was concluded that egg consumption, at a range of intakes, was associated with nutrition and health benefits. Research limitations/implications – More research on eggs, and egg nutrients, is needed to confirm the health benefits. Future studies should control for other dietary and lifestyle factors. Originality/value – This paper develops knowledge about egg consumption beyond cholesterol content and provides new evidence from a secondary analysis of a large national dietary database.
    Nutrition & Food Science 05/2010; 40(3):263-279. DOI:10.1108/00346651011043961
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