HIV/STD stigmatization fears as health-seeking barriers in China.

Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Neuropsychiatric Institute, Center for Culture and Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90024-1759, USA.
AIDS and Behavior (Impact Factor: 3.49). 10/2006; 10(5):463-71. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-005-9047-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Internationally, stigma prohibits effective HIV/STD identification, prevention, and care. Interviews with 106 persons in an urban center in Eastern China, some known to have engaged in stigmatized risk acts (sex workers, STD clinic patients) and some vulnerable for stigmatization fears to influence health-seeking behaviors (market employees, rural-to-urban migrants). Interviews focused on community norms, values, beliefs, and emotional and behavioral reactions to HIV/STD stigmatization related events. Attributions for infection were found to mark individual's failure to adhere to sexuality norms; define a condition warranting the avoidance of infected persons and dismissal by medical professionals; and promote anticipation of negative emotions (i.e., shame, fear, and embarrassment) and devalued social roles and status. Strategies reported to avoid stigmatization include avoiding HIV/STD knowledge; avoiding health care professionals, particularly in public settings; and conforming to community norms of shunning those suspected of risky behaviors. Results have direct implications for community marketing campaigns in China.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A prolonged feeling of shame leads to particularly negative consequences and it accompanies, as well as triggers, any kind of stigma. AS EMPIRICAL WORKS ON SHAME DUE TO STIGMATIZING DISEASES ARE SCARCE, THE AUTHORS AIMED TO INVESTIGATE THE FOLLOWING: 1) which diseases are perceived as the most embarrassing, and 2) what level of shame is attributed to the embarrassing diseases by affected patients. Additionally, the authors assumed that the differentiation variable for the second aim would be the level of infectiousness (or non-infectiousness) of a given disease. A two-stage study was carried out in 2011-2013. Three groups of patients affected by various diseases were included into the actual study: 1) people suffering from non-infectious (42 psoriasis and 42 acne subjects) and 2) infectious (25 syphilis cases) diseases. The patients filled in an original questionnaire, designed especially for the purpose of the study. As the most shameful acne patients consider syphilis, but patients with syphilis - AIDS. Patients with syphilis assigned to their disease the greatest shame (average 75%), and the lowest - acne patients (average 30%). Patients with psoriasis assessed on 52% shame experienced because of the disease. The conducted study confirmed the accuracy of the empirical assumptions which may be applicable in prevention as well as therapy of negative consequences of shame.
    Postepy Dermatologii I Alergologii 08/2013; 30(4):233-236. · 0.66 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Reducing STDs and HIV/AIDS incidence requires campaigns designed to change knowledge, attitudes and practices of risky sexual behavior and its consequences. In China, a significant obstacle to such changes is the stigma associated with these diseases. Thus one campaign intervention strategy is to train credible community popular opinion leaders to discuss these issues in everyday social venues. This study tested the effectiveness of such an approach on reducing HIV/AIDS stigma, across two years, from a sample of over 4500 market vendors, in three conditions. Results showed an increasing growth in market communication about intervention messages, and concomitant declines in stigmatizing attitudes, across time, with the greatest changes in community popular opinion leaders, significant changes in intervention non-opinion leaders, and little change in the control markets.
    Human Communication Research 10/2012; 38:379-405. · 1.84 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We aimed to identify factors related to HIV stigma in Liuzhou, Guangxi province, a city in southwest China with high HIV prevalence. We used a multi-stage cluster randomized sample of the general population to survey 852 adults. We conducted ordinal logistic regression analyses to test factors associated with punishment and isolation stigma. Eighteen percent of respondents agreed that people with HIV should be punished, and 40 % agreed that people living with HIV (PLHIV) should be isolated. Punishment stigma was associated with age, having three or more sexual partners, and TV watching. Isolation stigma was associated with age, urban residence and a history of STI. HIV transmission knowledge was low, and having correct knowledge attenuated the association with punishment and isolation stigma. Despite programs in China to provide care and treatment for PLHIV, HIV stigma is common in this region. Targeted interventions need to focus on fears related to HIV and PLHIV.
    AIDS and Behavior 07/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor


Available from
May 30, 2014