Chagas cardiomyopathy and ischemic stroke.
ABSTRACT American trypanosomiasis, known as Chagas disease is a major cause of cardiomyopathy in South America. Irreversible damage to the heart can appear 10-20 years after chagasic infection. The relationship between Chagas cardiomyopathy and ischemic stroke has been reviewed. Significant variables that predict ischemic stroke in chagasic patients have been identified: apical aneurysm, cardiac insufficiency, electrocardiogram arrhythmia and female gender. Chagasic cardiomyopathy should be included in the differential diagnosis of the etiology of stroke, being a potential source of cardioembolic stroke.
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ABSTRACT: There is a current controversy over the hypothesis that a number of thromboembolic events could be related to hypercoagulable state in patients with chronic Chagas disease. This study was designed to determine whether a prothrombotic state existed in chronic Trypanosoma cruzi-infected patients and, if so, to describe its evolution after treatment with Benznidazole. Twenty-five patients with chronic Chagas disease and 18 controls were evaluated. The markers used were prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, antithrombin, plasminogen, protein C, total protein S, free protein S, factor VIII, D-dimer, activated factor VIIa, tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F₁+₂), plasmin-antiplasmin complexes, soluble P-selectin and endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). Despite statistically significant differences between cases and controls in several markers, only ETP (which quantifies the ability of plasma to generate thrombin when activated through tissue factor addition) (p<0.0001) and F₁+₂ (a marker of thrombin generation in vivo) (p<0.0001) showed values outside the normal levels in patients compared with controls. Similar results were obtained in these markers six months after treatment in the cohort of cases (p<0.0008 and p<0.004, respectively). These results may be relevant in clinical practice. Though current treatment for Chagas disease is still controversial, if it were considered as a thromboembolic risk factor the antiparasitic treatment strategy could be reinforced. The results also support further research on haemostasis parameters as candidates for early surrogate biomarkers of cure or progression of Chagas disease.Thrombosis and Haemostasis 08/2011; 106(4):617-23. DOI:10.1160/TH11-04-0251 · 5.76 Impact Factor
Article: Acute Ischemic Stroke and Infections[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present an overview of multiple infections in relation to acute ischemic stroke and the therapeutic options available. Conditions that are a direct cause of stroke (infectious endocarditis, meningoencephalitides, and human immunodeficiency virus infection), the pathophysiologic mechanism responsible for stroke, and treatment dilemmas are presented. Independently or in conjunction with conventional risk factors, chronic and acute infections can trigger an acute ischemic stroke through an accelerated process of atherosclerosis and immunohematologic alterations. Acute ischemic stroke has a negative impact on the antibacterial immune response, leading to stroke-induced immunodepression and infections, the most common poststroke medical complications. Poststroke infections are independent predictors of poor outcome. Antibiotic trials for poststroke infection prevention are reviewed. Although antibiotic prophylaxis is not the standard of care in acute stroke, current guidelines support prompt treatment of stroke-related infections.Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 01/2011; 20(1):1-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2009.09.011 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article reviews the usefulness of various types of blood-derived biomarkers that are currently being studied to predict the progression of Chagas disease in patients with the indeterminate form, to assess the efficacy of antiparasitic drugs and to identify early cardiac and gastrointestinal damage. The authors used a search strategy based on MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Register for systematic review, EmBase, Global Health and LILACS databases. Out of 1716 screened articles, only 166 articles were eligible for final inclusion. The authors classified the biomarkers according to their biochemical structure and primary biological activity in four groups: i) markers of inflammation and cellular injury, ii) metabolic biomakers, iii) prothrombotic biomarkers and iv) markers derived from specific antigens of the parasite. Several potential biomarkers might have clinical potential for the detection of early cardiopathy. Such capacity is imperative in order to detect high-risk patients who require intensive monitoring and earlier therapy. Prospective studies with longer follow-ups are needed for the appraisal of biomarkers assessing clinical or microbiological cure after therapy. At the same time, studies evaluating more than one biomarker are useful to compare the efficacy among them given the lack of a recognized gold standard.Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy 09/2013; 11(9):957-76. DOI:10.1586/14787210.2013.824718 · 3.22 Impact Factor