Design and implementation of the Telemedicine-Enhanced Antidepressant Management Study
ABSTRACT Evidence-based practices designed for large urban clinics are not necessarily transportable into small rural practices. Implementing collaborative care for depression in small rural primary care clinics presents unique challenges because it is typically not feasible to employ on-site mental health specialists. The purpose of the Telemedicine-Enhanced Antidepressant Management (TEAM) study was to evaluate a collaborative care model adapted for small rural clinics using telemedicine technologies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the TEAM study design.
The TEAM study was conducted in small rural Veterans Administration community-based outpatient clinics with interactive video equipment available for mental health, but no on-site psychiatrists/psychologists. The study attempted to enroll all patients whose depression could be appropriately treated in primary care.
The clinical characteristics of the 395 study participants differed significantly from most previous trials of collaborative care. At baseline, 41% were already receiving primary care depression treatment. Study participants averaged 5.5 chronic physical health illnesses and 56.5% had a comorbid anxiety disorder. Over half (57.2%) reported that pain impaired their functioning extremely or quite a bit.
Despite small patient populations in rural clinics, enough patients with depression can be successfully enrolled to evaluate telemedicine-based collaborative care.
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ABSTRACT: Informed by data on the dose-response effect, the authors assessed use of psychotherapy in the Veterans Health Administration (VA). The authors identified 410,923 patients with newly diagnosed depression, anxiety, or posttraumatic stress disorder using VA databases (October 2003 through September 2004). Psychotherapy encounters were identified by Current Procedural Terminology codes for the 12 months following patients' initial diagnosis. Psychotherapy was examined for session exposure received within the 12-month follow-up period and time (in days) between diagnosis and treatment. Of the cohort, 22% received at least one session of psychotherapy; 7.9% received four or more sessions; 4.2% received eight or more sessions; and 2.4% received 13 or more sessions. Delays between initial mental health diagnosis and initiation of care averaged 57 days. Patient variables including age, marital status, income, travel distance, psychiatric diagnosis, and medical-illness burden were significantly related to receipt of psychotherapy. Treatment delays and general underuse of psychotherapy services are potential missed opportunities for higher-quality psychotherapeutic care in integrated health care settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)Psychological Services 10/2008; 5(4):320-331. DOI:10.1037/a0013719 · 1.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Common mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety, are estimated to affect up to 15% of the UK population at any one time, and health care systems worldwide need to implement interventions to reduce the impact and burden of these conditions. Collaborative care is a complex intervention based on chronic disease management models that may be effective in the management of these common mental health problems. To assess the effectiveness of collaborative care for patients with depression or anxiety. We searched the following databases to February 2012: The Cochrane Collaboration Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis Group (CCDAN) trials registers (CCDANCTR-References and CCDANCTR-Studies) which include relevant randomised controlled trials (RCTs) from MEDLINE (1950 to present), EMBASE (1974 to present), PsycINFO (1967 to present) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, all years); the World Health Organization (WHO) trials portal (ICTRP); ClinicalTrials.gov; and CINAHL (to November 2010 only). We screened the reference lists of reports of all included studies and published systematic reviews for reports of additional studies. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of collaborative care for participants of all ages with depression or anxiety. Two independent researchers extracted data using a standardised data extraction sheet. Two independent researchers made 'Risk of bias' assessments using criteria from The Cochrane Collaboration. We combined continuous measures of outcome using standardised mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We combined dichotomous measures using risk ratios (RRs) with 95% CIs. Sensitivity analyses tested the robustness of the results. We included seventy-nine RCTs (including 90 relevant comparisons) involving 24,308 participants in the review. Studies varied in terms of risk of bias.The results of primary analyses demonstrated significantly greater improvement in depression outcomes for adults with depression treated with the collaborative care model in the short-term (SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.27; RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.43), medium-term (SMD -0.28, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.15; RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.48), and long-term (SMD -0.35, 95% CI -0.46 to -0.24; RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.41). However, these significant benefits were not demonstrated into the very long-term (RR 1.12, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.27).The results also demonstrated significantly greater improvement in anxiety outcomes for adults with anxiety treated with the collaborative care model in the short-term (SMD -0.30, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.17; RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.87), medium-term (SMD -0.33, 95% CI -0.47 to -0.19; RR 1.41, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.69), and long-term (SMD -0.20, 95% CI -0.34 to -0.06; RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.42). No comparisons examined the effects of the intervention on anxiety outcomes in the very long-term.There was evidence of benefit in secondary outcomes including medication use, mental health quality of life, and patient satisfaction, although there was less evidence of benefit in physical quality of life. Collaborative care is associated with significant improvement in depression and anxiety outcomes compared with usual care, and represents a useful addition to clinical pathways for adult patients with depression and anxiety.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 01/2012; 10(10):CD006525. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD006525.pub2 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a serious and prolonged illness between whose psychosocial treatments one of the most effective is the psychoeducation. This treatment involves the family and succeeds in reducing rates of relapse and improves the course of the illness. The Psychiatry Service of Zamora years ago develops an intervention of this kind. In Zamora, the geographical and transport are obstacles who characterize its territory, and cause of some difficulties in access of families to this important therapy. In view of this circumstances an alternative is develop a distance therapy founded in internet. This work is an approach to test this possibility. This research conducted an exhaustive review of the literature regarding psychoeducation as e-therapy. Analyzed the results of the traditional treatment previously made by the Service of Zamora, and explored the difficulties of access for their users. The results indicate that the intervention traditional in Zamora increases knowledge and requires some improvement; also described the difficulties that families have accessing to the intervention (mainly distance and transportation). Finally, both families and professionals would be prepared to use a therapy at a distance based on Internet. This research has developed a methodology for analysis of the instruments used in the Service of Zamora; has known the outcome of the psychoeducational intervention; have been identified the difficulties in access to interventions and; have been explored the possible acceptances of an e-therapy. These results are the foundation and justification to develop a psychoeducational program called PsicoED that fits the pattern of service to the needs of its population.01/2008, Degree: Salamanca, Supervisor: Franco, M.; Jiménez, F.