Regulation of cellular functions by the ERK5 signalling pathway
ABSTRACT Extracellular-regulated protein kinase 5 (ERK5) is a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulated by a wide range of mitogens and cellular stresses. Since its cloning in 1995, the lack of biological tools, including antibodies and specific inhibitors, have made it one of the least studied MAPK subfamilies. The discovery that ERK5 was an important contributor to cell survival mechanisms has increased interest in this signalling pathway. The ability of inhibitors of the classical MAPK (ERK1/2) cascade to block ERK5 activation suggested that ERK5 might regulate some cellular functions originally attributed to ERK1/2. For example, ERK5 is suspected to mediate the effects of numerous oncogenes. A link between abnormal levels of ERK5 expression and cancers was established by the analysis of human tumours. Recently, the targeted deletions of the erk5 and the mek5 genes in mice have provided genetic evidence that the ERK5 cascade is a non-redundant signalling pathway essential for normal cardiovascular development. The analysis of genetically modified mice in which the erk5 gene can be specifically deleted in certain tissues is shedding light into the physiological function of the ERK5 pathway during development and pathogenesis.
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ABSTRACT: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) play critical roles in numerous cellular processes, including proliferation and differentiation. ERK5 contains a kinase domain at the N-terminal, and the unique extended C-terminal includes multiple autophosphorylation sites that enhance ERK5-dependent transcription. However, the impact of phosphorylation at the various sites remain unclear. In this study, we examined the role of phosphorylation at the ERK5 C-terminal. We found that a constitutively active MEK5 mutant phosphorylated ERK5 at the TEY motif, resulting in the sequential autophosphorylation of multiple C-terminal residues, including Thr732 and Ser769/773/775. However, when ERK1/2 was selectively activated by an oncogenic RAS mutant, ERK5 phosphorylation at Thr732 was induced without affecting the phosphorylation status at TEY or Ser769/773/775. The Thr732 phosphorylation was U0126-sensitive and was observed in a kinase-dead mutant of ERK5 as well, suggesting that ERK1/2 can phosphorylate ERK5 at Thr732. This phosphorylation was also promoted by epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor in HEK293 and PC12 cells, respectively. The ERK5-T732A mutant was localized in the cytosol under basal conditions. In contrast, ERK5 phosphorylated at Thr732 via the RAS-ERK1/2 pathway and ERK5-T732E, which mimics the phosphorylated form, were localized in both the nucleus and cytosol. Finally, ER-32A and U0126 blocked ERK5-dependent MEF2C transcriptional activity. Based on these findings, we propose a novel cross-talk mechanism in which ERK1/2, following activation by growth factor stimulation, phosphorylates ERK5 at Thr732. This phosphorylation event is responsible for ERK5 nuclear localization and ERK5-dependent transcription.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0117914. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117914 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are the main neuropathological hallmarks in Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. However, it has become increasingly apparent that neuroinflammation plays a significant role in the pathophysiology of AD. This review summarizes the current status of neuroinflammation research related to AD, focusing on the connections between neuroinflammation and some inflammation factors in AD. Among these connections, we discuss the dysfunctional blood-brain barrier and alterations in the functional responses of microglia and astrocytes in this process. In addition, we summarize and discuss the role of intracellular signaling pathways involved in inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, nuclear factor-kappa B cascade, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma transcription factors. Finally, the dysregulation of the control and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and classic AD pathology (amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) in AD is also reviewed.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 01/2015; 11:243-56. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S75546 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hereditary hyperplastic gingivitis (HHG) is an autosomal recessive condition found predominantly in farmed silver foxes, first documented in Europe in the 1940s. Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is an analogous condition occurring in humans. HGF has a heterogeneous aetiology with emphasis placed on the autosomal dominant forms of inheritance for which there are three known loci: HGF1, HGF2, and HGF3. Among these, only one causative mutation has been determined, in the Son of sevenless homolog 1 (SOS1) gene. The goal of this study was to explore potential molecular or cellular mechanisms underlying HHG by analysis of global gene expression patterns from Affymetrix Canine 2.0 microarrays cross-referenced against candidate genes within the human loci. We conclude that the SOS1 gene involved in HGF1 is not significantly up-regulated in HHG. However, the structurally and functionally similar SOS2 gene is up-regulated in affected foxes, and we propose this as a candidate gene for HHG. At HGF2 we identify RASA1 (rat sarcoma viral p21 protein activator 1) as a candidate gene for HHG, as it is up-regulated in affected foxes and is involved in MAPK signalling. From comparison to the genes within the HGF3 locus, we find evidence for a role of androgens in HHG phenotype severity by differential up-regulation of SRD5A2 in HHG-affected foxes. We hypothesize that the putative mutation occurs upstream of RAS in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase component of MAPK signalling.Genome 08/2014; 57(8):449-57. DOI:10.1139/gen-2014-0089 · 1.56 Impact Factor