Patterns of sequence loss and cytosine methylation within a population of newly resynthesized Brassica napus allopolyploids.

Department of Plant Agriculture, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1.
Plant physiology (Impact Factor: 7.39). 02/2006; 140(1):336-48. DOI: 10.1104/pp.105.066308
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Allopolyploid formation requires the adaptation of two nuclear genomes within a single cytoplasm, which may involve programmed genetic and epigenetic changes during the initial generations following genome fusion. To study the dynamics of genome change, we synthesized 49 isogenic Brassica napus allopolyploids and surveyed them with 76 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) probes and 30 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primer pairs. Here, we report on the types and distribution of genetic and epigenetic changes within the S(1) genotypes. We found that insertion/deletion (indel) events were rare, but not random. Of the 57,710 (54,383 RFLP and 3,327 SSR) parental fragments expected among the amphidiploids, we observed 56,676 or 99.9%. Three loci derived from Brassica rapa had indels, and one indel occurred repeatedly across 29% (14/49) of the lines. Loss of one parental fragment was due to the 400-bp reduction of a guanine-adenine dinucleotide repeat-rich sequence. In contrast to the 4% (3/76) RFLP probes that detected indels, 48% (35/73) detected changes in the CpG methylation status between parental genomes and the S1 lines. Some loci were far more likely than others to undergo epigenetic change, but the number of methylation changes within each synthetic polyploid was remarkably similar to others. Clear de novo methylation occurred at a much higher frequency than de novo demethylation within allopolyploid sequences derived from B. rapa. Our results suggest that there is little genetic change in the S(0) generation of resynthesized B. napus polyploids. In contrast, DNA methylation was altered extensively in a pattern that indicates tight regulation of epigenetic changes.

1 Follower
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Brassica includes many successfully cultivated crop species of polyploid origin, either by ancestral genome triplication or by hybridization between two diploid progenitors, displaying complex repetitive sequences and transposons. The U¿s triangle, which consists of three diploids and three amphidiploids, is optimal for the analysis of complicated genomes after polyploidization. Next-generation sequencing enables the transcriptome profiling of polyploids on a global scale.ResultsWe examined the gene expression patterns of three diploids (Brassica rapa, B. nigra, and B. oleracea) and three amphidiploids (B. napus, B. juncea, and B. carinata) via digital gene expression analysis. In total, the libraries generated between 5.7 and 6.1 million raw reads, and the clean tags of each library were mapped to 18547¿21995 genes of B. rapa genome. The unambiguous tag-mapped genes in the libraries were compared. Moreover, the majority of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were explored among diploids as well as between diploids and amphidiploids. Gene ontological analysis was performed to functionally categorize these DEGs into different classes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis was performed to assign these DEGs into approximately 120 pathways, among which the metabolic pathway, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and peroxisomal pathway were enriched. The non-additive genes in Brassica amphidiploids were analyzed, and the results indicated that orthologous genes in polyploids are frequently expressed in a non-additive pattern. Methyltransferase genes showed differential expression pattern in Brassica species.Conclusion Our results provided an understanding of the transcriptome complexity of natural Brassica species. The gene expression changes in diploids and allopolyploids may help elucidate the morphological and physiological differences among Brassica species.
    BMC Plant Biology 01/2015; 15(1):22. DOI:10.1186/s12870-015-0417-5 · 3.94 Impact Factor
  • Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture 12/2014; 119(3):511-522. DOI:10.1007/s11240-014-0551-z · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The formation and evolution of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., genome BBAADD) involves allopolyploidization events at two ploidy levels. Whether the two ploidy levels (tetraploidy and hexaploidy) have impacted the BBAA subgenomes differentially remains largely unknown. We have reported recently that extensive and distinct modifications of transcriptome expression occurred to the BBAA component of common wheat relative to the evolution of gene expression at the tetraploid level in Triticum turgidum. As a step further, here we analyzed the genetic and cytosine DNA methylation differences between an extracted tetraploid wheat (ETW) harboring genome BBAA that is highly similar to the BBAA subgenomes of common wheat, and a set of diverse T. turgidum collections, including both wild and cultivated genotypes. We found that while ETW had no significantly altered karyotype from T. turgidum, it diverged substantially from the later at both the nucleotide sequence level and in DNA methylation based on molecular marker assay of randomly sampled loci across the genome. In particular, ETW is globally less cytosine-methylated than T. turgidum, consistent with earlier observations of a generally higher transcriptome expression level in ETW than in T. turgidum. Together, our results suggest that genome evolution at the allohexaploid level has caused extensive genetic and DNA methylation modifications to the BBAA subgenomes of common wheat, which are distinctive from those accumulated at the tetraploid level in both wild and cultivated T. turgidum genotypes.
    Plant Molecular Biology 03/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11103-015-0307-0 · 4.07 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 5, 2014