The persistence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in memory CD4+ T cells is a major obstacle to the eradication of the virus with current antiretroviral therapy. Here, we investigated the effect of the activation status of CD4+ T cells on the predominance of R5 and X4 HIV-1 variants in different subsets of CD4+ T cells in ex vivo-infected human lymphoid tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). In these cell systems, we examined the sensitivity of HIV replication to reverse transcriptase inhibitors. We demonstrate that R5 HIV-1 variants preferentially produced productive infection in HLA-DR- CD62L- CD4+ T cells. These cells were mostly in the G1b phase of the cell cycle, divided slowly, and expressed high levels of CCR5. In contrast, X4 HIV-1 variants preferentially produced productive infection in activated HLA-DR+ CD62L+ CD4+ T cells, which expressed high levels of CXCR4. The abilities of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) zidovudine and lamivudine to stop HIV-1 replication were 20 times greater in activated T cells than in slowly dividing HLA-DR- CD62L- CD4+ T cells. This result, demonstrated both in a highly physiologically relevant ex vivo lymphoid tissue model and in PBMCs, correlated with higher levels of thymidine kinase mRNA in activated than in slowly dividing HLA-DR- CD62L- CD4+ T cells. The non-NRTI nevirapine was equally efficient in both cell subsets. The lymphoid tissue and PBMC-derived cell systems represent well-defined models which could be used as new tools for the study of the mechanism of resistance to HIV-1 inhibitors in HLA-DR- CD62L- CD4+ T cells.
"The results also confirm findings from other studies demonstrating comparable decay of productively infected cells in peripheral blood [21,27]. A report on preferential HIV-1 inhibition during AZT treatment in activated cells over slowly dividing cells in vitro, may indicate that the vast majority of virus in the circulation comes from activated cells . Although naïve and central memory lymphocyte subsets contain more long-lived resting cells than the effector memory subset and outnumber this subset, no difference in viral decay was observed. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) has proven its success against HIV-1, the long lifespan of infected cells and viral latency prevent eradication. In this study we analyzed the sensitivity to ART of HIV-1 strains in naïve, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte subsets.
From five patients cellular HIV-1 infection levels were quantified before and after initiation of therapy (2-5 weeks). Through sequencing the C2V3 region of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope, we studied the effect of short-term therapy on virus variants derived from naïve, central memory and effector memory CD4+ lymphocyte subsets.
During short-term ART, HIV-1 infection levels declined in all lymphocyte subsets but not as much as RNA levels in serum. Virus diversity in the naïve and central memory lymphocyte populations remained unchanged, whilst diversity decreased in serum and the effector memory lymphocytes. ART differentially affected the virus populations co-circulating in one individual harboring a dual HIV-1 infection. Changes in V3 charge were found in all individuals after ART initiation with increases within the effector memory subset and decreases found in the naïve cell population.
During early ART virus diversity is affected mainly in the serum and effector memory cell compartments. Differential alterations in V3 charge were observed between effector memory and naïve populations. While certain cell populations can be targeted preferentially during early ART, some virus strains demonstrate varied sensitivity to therapy, as shown from studying two strains within a dual HIV-1 infected individual.
AIDS Research and Therapy 12/2010; 7:42. DOI:10.1186/1742-6405-7-42 · 1.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucosal associated lymphoid tissues are major targets of HIV during early infection and disease progression but can also provide a viral safe haven during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Among these tissues, the tonsils remain enigmatic regarding their status as primary and/or secondary sites of retroviral infection. To dissect the mechanisms underlying susceptibility to HIV in this compartment, isolated tonsil cells were studied for phenotypic and functional characteristics, which may account for their permissiveness to infection. For this, tonsil cells and PBMC were infected in parallel with HIV, and viral replication was monitored by p24 ELISA. Our results demonstrate that unstimulated tonsil cells were more readily infected than PBMC with HIV. Phenotypic characterization of the tonsil cells revealed heterogeneous lymphoid populations but with increased expression of early activation markers and the viral co-receptor CXCR4, relative to PBMC, all of which may contribute to viral susceptibility. Furthermore, the cytokine microenvironment appeared to be key in facilitating HIV infection and tonsil-secreted products enhanced HIV infection in PBMC. Of the cytokines detected in the tonsil supernatants, TH2 cytokines, particularly IL-4, promoted HIV infection and replication. Interestingly, this TH2 profile appeared to dominate, even in the presence of the TH1 cytokine IFNgamma and the anti-viral factor IFNalpha, likely due to the enhanced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins, which may disengage IFN signaling. These and other local environmental factors may render tonsil cells increasingly susceptible to HIV infection.
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