Article

Central retinal thickness is positively correlated with macular pigment optical density.

Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK.
Experimental Eye Research (Impact Factor: 3.02). 06/2006; 82(5):915-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2005.10.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Macular pigment (MP) has been suggested to have a protective role in age-related macular degeneration by reducing the amount of oxidative stress on the retina. MP levels peak at the foveal center, where it is found predominantly in the receptor axon and inner plexiform layers of the retina. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between central retinal thickness and macular pigment optical density in a group of healthy subjects. We report that macular pigment optical density (MPOD) has a significant and positive relationship with central retinal thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography. The strength of the observed relationship (r approximately 0.30) was independent of the technique used to measure MPOD, whether heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) or 2-wavelength autofluorescence (AF). Of note, there was no statistically demonstrable relationship between MPOD at an eccentricity of 1- or 2-degrees and central retinal thickness. This finding has important implications for future studies investigating MPOD, and its response to dietary modification/supplementation.

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Available from: Christopher J Hammond, Jul 25, 2014
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    • "These data are also consistent with the mean central MPOD level of a study of 828 healthy Irish subjects (Nolan et al., 2007b). In this population, the mean central MPOD was 0.30 d.u. which is comparable to values determined in other studies (ranging from 0.21 to 0.44 d.u.) using similar age groups and testing conditions (Berendschot & van Norren, 2005; Ciulla, et al., 2001; Hammond & Caruso-Avery, 2000; Liew, et al., 2006; Mellerio, et al., 2002; Nolan et al., 2007b). The panel acknowledged that whether or not central MPOD declines with age remains controversial. "
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing recognition that the optical and antioxidant properties of the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin play an important role in maintaining the health and function of the human macula. In this review article, we assess the value of non-invasive quantification of macular pigment levels and distributions to identify individuals potentially at risk for visual disability or catastrophic vision loss from age-related macular degeneration, and we consider the strengths and weaknesses of the diverse measurement methods currently available.
    Vision research 10/2009; 50(7):716-28. DOI:10.1016/j.visres.2009.10.014 · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The purpose of our study was to: (1) investigate the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) in subjects with different axial lengths (AL) and refractive errors (RE); (2) determine if there is a correlation between MPOD and OPA; and (3) evaluate whether MPOD and OPA depend on intraocular pressure (IOP). MATERIAL AND METHODS This study included 140 eyes of 70 subjects - 17 men and 53 women, aged 18 to 29 years (mean: 22.5 years; SD=2.8). Every examined person underwent a thorough eye examination including: visual acuity, anterior segment and fundus examination, keratometry, auto-refractometry, and MPOD, OPA, AL, and IOP measurements. The obtained results were analyzed statistically using Statistica 10 software. P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS The following refractive errors were selected: emmetropia (34 eyes), hyperopia (18 eyes), low myopia (60 eyes), medium myopia (19 eyes), and high myopia (9 eyes). It has been established that the OPA increases with the rise in the spherical equivalents (SE) (Rs=+0.38, P<0.001), while the increase in AL correlates with the decrease of OPA (Rs=-0.40, P<0.001). The increase in IOP correlates with the rise in the OPA (Rs=+0.20, P<0.05). There were no significant correlations between IOP and SE or AL. CONCLUSIONS (1) MPOD is not correlated with the OPA in subjects with different AL and RE; (2) OPA decreases with the rise of AL; (3) OPA decreases with the fall of the SE; and (4) OPA increases with the rise in IOP.
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    ABSTRACT: • Macular pigment (MP) is composed of the stereo-isomers lutein and zeaxanthin. The absorption peaks at the center of the fovea and decreases rapidly with eccentricity. In the central 0–2.3 mm region, zeaxanthin predominates over lutein, whereas for eccentricities beyond this region, lutein is the major carotenoid. An exponentially decaying density as a function of eccentricity yields a good description of the spatial distribution. For some subjects, a Gaussian-like ring pattern has to be added around 0.7° eccentricity. • There is a growing body of evidence in support of the view that MP protects against or ameliorates the clinical course of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of irreversible blindness in the industrialized world. There are some plausible arguments to assume that MP indeed exerts a protective effect in the retinal area. First of all, it acts as a blue light filter, thereby decreasing chances for photochemical light damage. In addition, MP is capable of scavenging free radicals. Finally, lutein is capable of suppressing inflammation. • Humans are unable to synthesize lutein and zeaxanthin. Thus, the MP optical density (MPOD) depends on the dietary intake. It has been shown that MPOD can be increased by a dietary modification or by supplements in healthy subjects as well as in subjects with a diseased macula. • There are several ways to determine the MPOD in the living human eye. The most widespread are the psychophysical techniques, where a subject adjusts color or luminosity, generally through a minimum flicker, or a minimum motion task. The second, more objective approach is through analysis of light returning from the retina. It relies either on spectral analysis, autofluorescence, or resonant Raman spectroscopy. In particular, the latter three are suited to obtain MPOD maps that show the spatial distribution of the MP with a high resolution.
    01/1970: pages 51-68;
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