Central retinal thickness is positively correlated with macular pigment optical density.

Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology Unit, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK.
Experimental Eye Research (Impact Factor: 3.03). 06/2006; 82(5):915-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.exer.2005.10.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Macular pigment (MP) has been suggested to have a protective role in age-related macular degeneration by reducing the amount of oxidative stress on the retina. MP levels peak at the foveal center, where it is found predominantly in the receptor axon and inner plexiform layers of the retina. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between central retinal thickness and macular pigment optical density in a group of healthy subjects. We report that macular pigment optical density (MPOD) has a significant and positive relationship with central retinal thickness as measured by optical coherence tomography. The strength of the observed relationship (r approximately 0.30) was independent of the technique used to measure MPOD, whether heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) or 2-wavelength autofluorescence (AF). Of note, there was no statistically demonstrable relationship between MPOD at an eccentricity of 1- or 2-degrees and central retinal thickness. This finding has important implications for future studies investigating MPOD, and its response to dietary modification/supplementation.

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    ABSTRACT: Macular pigment is a defense system against phototoxic damage of the retina by visible light. It is still under debate whether or not macular pigment optical density (MPOD) levels decline with age, because the age effect varied depending on the technique used to measure MPOD levels. Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) is an objective method to measure MPOD, and studies using RRS showed a drastic age-related decline of MPOD levels; however, since RRS measurements are influenced by cataracts, it has been argued that the age-related decline of RRS measurements is an artifact from lens changes in aged subjects. In the present study, MPOD levels were measured with RRS in pseudophakic eyes, and the effects of age and other factors on MPOD levels were investigated. The subjects included 144 patients with no fundus disorders who received cataract surgery with untinted intraocular lens implantation. MPOD levels were measured in 144 eyes using integral RRS 1 day post surgery. Factors potentially associated with MPOD levels such as age, gender, smoking habits, body mass index, diabetes, glaucoma, axial length, pupil diameter, spherical equivalent refractive error, and foveal thickness were examined by multiple regression analysis. The macular pigment RRS levels ranged from 776 to 11,815 Raman counts, with an average level of 4,375 ± 1,917 (standard deviation [SD]) Raman counts. Multiple regression analysis revealed that age and axial length were significantly correlated with low MPOD values (regression coefficient of -59 for age and -404 for axial length, respectively). No significant correlations were observed for other factors. After removing the potentially confounding effect of age-related lens yellowing on the RRS measurements, age remained a significant patient parameter for lowered MPOD levels. MPOD levels were found to decline by more than 10 % each decade. Axial length was also a negative predictor of MPOD levels. Since the present study included only patients aged 50 years and older, the effects of age and other factors on MPOD levels for younger subjects remain unknown.
    Albrecht von Graæes Archiv für Ophthalmologie 03/2014; · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Since patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are living longer, chronic malabsorption of carotenoids associated with CF resulting in decreased macular pigment may affect macular long-term health in later life pathology. This study compared the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and corresponding central macular volume (MV) of adult CF subjects and age-matched normal controls subjects to determine whether chronic malabsorption associated with CF could adversely affect macular photoreceptor anatomy. Objective: Our aim was to compare MPOD with measurements of central MV in CF patients with age matched controls. Design: In 9 adult CF patients (ages 29-46) without a history of carotenoid supplementation or known retinal or optic nerve disease MPOD and MV were measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry (HFP) and optical coherence tomography (OCT), respectively, and compared to results obtained from 14 age-matched controls. Results: MPOD was significantly reduced at 15' and 30' eccentricities in CF subjects compared to normal subjects (mean difference -0.21 at 15', -0.25 at 30', p<0.005). No significant difference, in MV noted at any of the eccentricities tested between CF and normal subjects (CF: normal MV ratios ranged from 0.94 to 1.1 for all eccentricities with p>0.1 at all eccentricities). Best corrected vision acuity and fundus examination were normal in all subjects. Conclusions: Unsupplemented CF patients have markedly lower levels of macular carotenoids (e.g., lutein and zeaxanthin), but well maintain visual function and no significant reductions in central MV composed primary of macular photoreceptors. Future studies are needed to determine if the lifelong decrease in protective central retinal carotenoids predisposes CF patients to later life retinal pathology.
    Free Radical Research 03/2014; · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Recent reports indicated that the slope of the foveal depression influences the macular pigment (MP) spatial profile. MP has been shown to confer possible protection against age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) because of its antioxidant properties. Aims: To study the configuration of foveal slope and the foveal thickness in fellow eyes of subjects with unilateral neovascular ARMD. Settings and design: Case-control series. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 30 cases aged >50, who had unilateral choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM) or disciform scar in the fellow eye and 29 controls aged >50, who had no sign of ARMD in the either eye. Using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, foveal thickness at different locations including the central subfield foveal thickness (CSFT) was noted. The foveal slopes were calculated in the six radial scans (between 0.25° and 1° retinal eccentricity) as well as the 3D scan. Results: Cases had a significantly higher CSFT when compared to controls (215.1 ± 36.19 μ vs. 193.0 ± 17.38 μ, P = 0.004). On the 3D scan, the cases had shallower superior (cases 1.32 ± 0.32 vs. controls 1.45 ± 0.13, P = 0.04) and temporal slopes (cases 1.27 ± 0.21 vs. controls 1.39 ± 0.12, P = 0.01) in comparison to the controls. Conclusions: We noted a shallower superior and temporal foveal slope and a higher CSFT in the fellow eyes of subjects with a unilateral neovascular ARMD. Prospective studies observing the development of CNVM in subjects with altered foveal slope might provide more information on this optical coherence tomography finding.
    Indian Journal of Ophthalmology 09/2013; 61(9):507-510. · 1.02 Impact Factor

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