Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers.
ABSTRACT In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/beta-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21WAF1). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers.
Article: Cell cycle development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The Keystone Symposium on the Cell Cycle and Development brought together biologists with an interest in how cell cycle control is integrated into the ontogenetic program of multicellular organisms, and showcased research using a wide variety of systems from both animals and plants. A clear indication from the meeting is that this research is changing the conventional wisdom on both cell cycle control and development.Developmental Cell 04/2004; 6(3):321-7. · 12.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) induced mutation of the p53 gene at codon 249 (p53mt249) is critical during the formation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. p53mt249 markedly increases insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) transcription largely from promoter 4, accumulating the fetal form of IGF-II. Modulation of the transcription factor binding to IGF-II P4 by wild-type p53 and p53mt249 was identified. Wild-type p53 inhibited binding of transcription factors Sp1 and TBP on the P4 promoter, while p53mt249 enhanced the formation of transcriptional complexes through enhanced DNA-protein (Sp1 or TBP) and protein-protein (Sp1 and TBP) interactions. p53mt249 stimulates transcription factor Sp1 phosphorylation which might be a cause of increased transcription factor binding on the P4 promoter while wild-type p53 does not. Transfection of hepatocytes with p53mt249 impaired induction of apoptosis by the HBV-X protein and TNF-alpha. Therefore, the blocking of apoptosis through enhanced production of IGF-II should provide a favorable opportunity for the selection of transformed hepatocytes. These results explain the molecular basis for the genesis of HCC by p53mt249 which was found to be induced by a potent mutagen, AFB1.Oncogene 09/2000; 19(33):3717-26. · 7.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The process of transcriptional activation in eukaryotes by site-specific DNA-binding proteins is a key step in gene regulation. Here we have examined the properties of four distinct activator domains of the human transcription factor Sp1. In vivo transient cotransfection assays with Sp1 show that templates bearing multiple Sp1 sites activate transcription with a high degree of synergism. However, there is no evidence of cooperative binding of Sp1 to adjacent sites. Using deletion mutants of Sp1 we have determined that the glutamine-rich activation domains A and B and the previously uncharacterized carboxy-terminal domain D are all required for Sp1 to activate transcription synergistically. Gel-shift, DNase footprinting, and chemical cross-linking experiments reveal a strong correlation between the ability of Sp1 mutants to form homomultimeric complexes and their ability to activate transcription synergistically when bound to multiple sites. We have also examined the process of superactivation, in which a molecule of Sp1 tethered to DNA via its zinc fingers can be transcriptionally enhanced by interacting directly with fingerless Sp1 molecules. The domains involved in superactivation appear to be a subset of those necessary to achieve synergistic activation. These findings suggest that different domains of Sp1 carry out distinct functions and that the formation of multimeric complexes may direct synergism and superactivation.Genes & Development 10/1991; 5(9):1646-56. · 12.44 Impact Factor