Detection of HCV-RNA in saliva of HIV-HCV coinfected patients

School of Medicine and Dentistry, Santiago de Compostela University, Santiago, Spain.
AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (Impact Factor: 2.33). 12/2005; 21(12):1011-5. DOI: 10.1089/aid.2005.21.1011
Source: PubMed


The presence of HCV-RNA in saliva of patients with chronic hepatitis C provides a biological basis for the potential transmission of this virus. HCV viremia is particularly high in HCV-HIV-coinfected patients, which could favor the presence of HCV in their saliva. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of HCV in saliva of HCV-HIV-coinfected patients. Stimulated whole saliva was collected from 75 HCV-HIV-coinfected patients and 75 HCV controls. The presence of HCV-RNA in saliva was tested by a highly sensitive noncommercialized nested PCR, and analyzed in relation to demographic, clinical, and analytical variables. HCVRNA was detected in the saliva of 49 (65%) HCV-HIV-coinfected patients and 39 (52%) HCV controls. The presence of HCV in saliva was not related to any of the analyzed variables in HCV-HIV-coinfected patients. In the HCV control group a statistically significant relationship was demonstrated only between the detection of HCV-RNA in saliva and the viral load in peripheral blood (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that there is a trend toward a higher HCV-RNA prevalence in the saliva of HCV-HIV-coinfected patients.

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    • "Some studies reported prevalence values of 31–100% in saliva samples [5,7] and 38–85% in oral and gingival groove fluid samples [5,8]. Another study reported 52% of salivary HCV in a group of patients coinfected with HIV [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is mainly transmitted by parenteral route, being blood transfusion and intravenous drug use the most frequent risk factors. However, it has been suggested that there are other routes of transmission. There are several studies where HCV RNA has been detected in saliva of patients infected with HCV, and epidemiological studies have proposed the dental treatments as possible risk factors for HCV transmission. The purpose of this study was to detect the presence of HCV RNA in saliva of patients with active infection and associating with periodontal or liver disease. Patients with quantifiable HCV-RNA in serum were enrolled in the study. Periodontal disease was assessed using the modified gingival index (MGI). Presence of dental plaque was assessed with the use of disclosing tablets. Patients were clinically and laboratory evaluated to identify the stage of liver disease, the HCV RNA was determinate in saliva by nested RT-PCR. To determine associations between different parameters univariate and multivariate analysis were used. A total of 45 patients were included. Of these patients, 21(46.6%) had hepatitis, 23 (51.1%) had cirrhosis and one patient (2.4%) presented hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Viral loads in serum ranged from 2.31-6.68 log IU/ml with a mean of 5.46 log IU/ml (95% CI 5.23-5.70). HCV RNA was positive in saliva of 29 patients (64.4%) and was not detected in 16 (35.6%). For univariate analysis three independent variables were associated with the detection of HCV-RNA in saliva: gender, viral load and dental plaque and multivariate analysis only one independent variable viral load >5.17 log IU/mL remained significantly associated with the detection of HCV in saliva (p = 0.0002). A statistical difference was observed when viral load was analyzed, log 5.85 IU/mL (95% CI 5.67-6.02) for patients with HCV in saliva vs. log 4.77 IU/mL (95% CI 4.35-5.19) for patients without HCV in saliva (p = 0.0001). The detection of HCV-RNA in saliva was more frequent in patients with relatively high serum viral loads. HCV-RNA in saliva was associated with the level of serum viral load but not with periodontal or liver disease severity.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2014; 14(1):72. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-72 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    • "Abe and Inchauspe (1991) demonstrated the transmission of HCV through human saliva, but the number of viral copies was not determined . Epidemiological studies suggest that the infective capacity of HCV RNA virions in saliva is low (De Cock et al. 2004, Eirea et al. 2005). Further studies are required to investigate the infective potential of HCVpositive saliva. "
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    ABSTRACT: The hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be detected in blood and other bodily fluids, such as saliva, semen and gastric juices. The aim of this study was to compare the HCV viral loads in the serum and saliva of infected patients. Twenty-nine patients with detectable HCV RNA in their serum and saliva were included in this study. The HCV viral loads were determined through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. The median viral RNA levels were 5.78 log10 copies in the serum and 3.32 log10 copies in the saliva. We observed that the salivary HCV viral load was significantly lower than the viral load in the serum. Further studies are required to understand the role of saliva in the diagnosis, management and potential transmission of HCV.
    Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 08/2012; 107(5):680-3. DOI:10.1590/S0074-02762012000500016 · 1.59 Impact Factor
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    • "Studies on the presence of HCV-RNA in saliva show an enormous variation of detection rates ranging from 0% to 100% (median, 42.5%) as reviewed recently (Ferreiro et al., 2005). However, in addition to the inferior quality of the molecular assays employed in those studies, results may be biased by several factors including HCV genotype, response to anti-HCV therapy, concomitant infections, and oral health status making comparisons difficult [Dios et al., 2005; Eirea et al., 2005; Lins et al., 2005; Pastore et al., 2006]. Oral fluid was collected mainly by using non-standardized sampling methods and absorption phase-based saliva collection devices that may be responsible in addition for a decreased recovery of viral nucleic acids; however, this needs to be investigated further. "
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    ABSTRACT: Oral fluid has been used widely as sample matrix for the detection and quantitation of viral nucleic acids. However, in the vast majority of previous studies, various methods for collection of oral fluid and molecular assays lacking automation and standardization were used. In this study, a new standardized liquid phase-based saliva collection system was employed followed by a fully automated viral nucleic acid extraction and real-time PCR using commercially available in vitro diagnostics (IVD)/Conformité Européene (CE) labeled molecular assays. When the lower limit of detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1/2 DNA, varicella zoster virus (VZV) DNA, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA in spiked oral fluid was tested, the results were found to be comparable to those with defined sample materials recommended by the assay manufacturers. When clinical specimens were investigated, 21 of 25 (84%) oral fluids obtained from patients with clinically apparent herpetic lesions tested positive for HSV DNA, 7 of 10 (70%) oral fluids obtained from patients with Ramsay Hunt Syndrome tested positive for VZV DNA, and 19 of 40 (48%) oral fluids collected from patients with chronic HCV infection tested positive for HCV RNA. The automated extraction instruments completed all extractions without malfunction and no inhibitions were observed throughout the entire study. Liquid phase-based saliva collection in conjunction with automated and standardized commercially available molecular assays allows reliable quantitation of viral nucleic acids in oral fluid samples and may contribute to improved comparable and interpretable test results.
    Journal of Medical Virology 09/2008; 80(9):1684-8. DOI:10.1002/jmv.21245 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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