Raabe A, Nakaji P, Beck J, et al. Prospective evaluation of surgical microscope-integrated intraoperative near-infrared indocyanine green videoangiography during aneurysm surgery. J Neurosurg.103(6):982-989

Department of Neurosurgery, Neurocenter, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
Journal of Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.74). 01/2006; 103(6):982-9. DOI: 10.3171/jns.2005.103.6.0982
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The authors prospectively compared a new technique of surgical microscope-based indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography with intraoperative or postoperative digital subtraction (DS) angiography.
The technique was performed during 187 surgical procedures in which 124 aneurysms in 114 patients were clipped. Using a newly developed setup, the ICG technique has been integrated into an operating microscope (Carl Zeiss Co., Oberkochen, Germany). A microscope-integrated light source containing infrared excitation light illuminates the operating field. The dye is injected intravenously into the patient, and intravascular fluorescence from within the blood vessels is imaged using a video camera attached to the microscope. The patency of parent, branching, and perforating arteries and documentation of clip occlusion of the aneurysm as shown by ICG videoangiography were compared with intraoperative or postoperative findings on DS angiography. The results of ICG videoangiography corresponded with intra- or postoperative DS angiography in 90% of cases. The ICG technique missed mild but hemodynamically irrelevant stenosis that was evident on DS angiography in 7.3% of cases. The ICG technique missed angiographically relevant findings in three cases (one hemodynamically relevant stenosis and two residual aneurysm necks [2.7% of cases]). In two cases the missed findings were clinically and surgically inconsequential; in the third case, a 4-mm residual neck may require a second procedure. Indocyanine green videoangiography provided significant information for the surgeon in 9% of cases, most of which led to clip correction.
Microscope-based ICG videoangiography is simple and provides real-time information about the patency of vessels of all sizes and about the aneurysm sac. This technique may be useful during routine aneurysm surgery as an independent form of angiography or as an adjunct to intra- or postoperative DS angiography.

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Available from: Peter Nakaji, Sep 10, 2014
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    • "Intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography has been in use for a decade and allows qualitative visualization of arterial, capillary, and venous systems and pathological vascular structures.[345891115162425262930] Recently, a microscope-integrated module (FLOW 800, Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) has been developed to allow quantification of ICG transit in the surgical field. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Intraoperative qualitative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography has been used in cerebrovascular surgery. Hyperperfusion may lead to neurological complications after superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively evaluate intraoperative cerebral perfusion using microscope-integrated dynamic ICG fluorescence analysis, and to assess whether this value predicts hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) after STA-MCA anastomosis. Methods: Ten patients undergoing STA-MCA anastomosis due to unilateral major cerebral artery occlusive disease were included. Ten patients with normal cerebral perfusion served as controls. The ICG transit curve from six regions of interest (ROIs) on the cortex, corresponding to ROIs on positron emission tomography (PET) study, was recorded. Maximum intensity (IMAX), cerebral blood flow index (CBFi), rise time (RT), and time to peak (TTP) were evaluated. Results: RT/TTP, but not IMAX or CBFi, could differentiate between control and study subjects. RT/TTP correlated (|r| = 0.534-0.807; P < 0.01) with mean transit time (MTT)/MTT ratio in the ipsilateral to contralateral hemisphere by PET study. Bland–Altman analysis showed a wide limit of agreement between RT and MTT and between TTP and MTT. The ratio of RT before and after bypass procedures was significantly lower in patients with postoperative HPS than in patients without postoperative HPS (0.60 ± 0.032 and 0.80 ± 0.056, respectively; P = 0.017). The ratio of TTP was also significantly lower in patients with postoperative HPS than in patients without postoperative HPS (0.64 ± 0.081 and 0.85 ± 0.095, respectively; P = 0.017). Conclusions: Time-dependent intraoperative parameters from the ICG transit curve provide quantitative information regarding cerebral circulation time with quality and utility comparable to information obtained by PET. These parameters may help predict the occurrence of postoperative HPS.
    Surgical Neurology International 09/2014; 5:135. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.140705 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    • "Intravenous injection of ICG is approved by the FDA for several clinical applications, including cerebrovascular surgery, and has been shown to have a low negative-reaction profile.[168081] Toxicities and risk for anaphylactic shock have been reported at high doses, however, and off-label use must be undertaken with caution.[275] "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The clinical application of fluorescent contrast agents (fluorescein, indocyanine green, and aminolevulinic acid) with intraoperative microscopy has led to advances in intraoperative brain tumor imaging. Their properties, mechanism of action, history of use, and safety are analyzed in this report along with a review of current laser scanning confocal endomicroscopy systems. Additional imaging modalities with potential neurosurgical utility are also analyzed. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed utilizing PubMed and key words: In vivo confocal microscopy, confocal endomicroscopy, fluorescence imaging, in vivo diagnostics/neoplasm, in vivo molecular imaging, and optical imaging. Articles were reviewed that discussed clinically available fluorophores in neurosurgery, confocal endomicroscopy instrumentation, confocal microscopy systems, and intraoperative cancer diagnostics. Results: Current clinically available fluorescent contrast agents have specific properties that provide microscopic delineation of tumors when imaged with laser scanning confocal endomicroscopes. Other imaging modalities such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy, confocal reflectance microscopy, fluorescent lifetime imaging (FLIM), two-photon microscopy, and second harmonic generation may also have potential in neurosurgical applications. Conclusion: In addition to guiding tumor resection, intraoperative fluorescence and microscopy have the potential to facilitate tumor identification and complement frozen section analysis during surgery by providing real-time histological assessment. Further research, including clinical trials, is necessary to test the efficacy of fluorescent contrast agents and optical imaging instrumentation in order to establish their role in neurosurgery.
    Surgical Neurology International 04/2014; 5(1):60. DOI:10.4103/2152-7806.131638 · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    • "In the last decade, our group and others have successfully utilized ICGA in surgery for elective and ruptured cerebral aneurysms, intracranial–extracranial bypass, and cerebral arteriovenous malformations [9–24]. ICGA has similar rates of clip repositioning and parent vessel stenosis when compared head-to-head with either intraoperative or postoperative DSA [9] [23] [25]. Published studies have focused on the technical sensitivity and specificity of ICGA when compared to a ''gold standard'' of intraoperative or postoperative DSA in patients receiving both imaging modalities. "
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    ABSTRACT: Intraoperative angiography in cerebrovascular neurosurgery can drive the repositioning or addition of aneurysm clips. Our institution has switched from a strategy of intraoperative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) universally, to a strategy of indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography with DSA on an as-needed basis. We retrospectively evaluated whether the rates of perioperative stroke, unexpected postoperative aneurysm residual, or parent vessel stenosis differed in 100 patients from each era (2002, "DSA era"; 2007, "ICG era"). The clip repositioning rate for neck residual or parent vessel stenosis did not differ significantly between the two eras. There were no differences in the rate of perioperative stroke or rate of false-negative studies. The per-patient cost of intraoperative imaging within the DSA era was significantly higher than in the ICG era. The replacement of routine intraoperative DSA with ICG videoangiography and selective intraoperative DSA in cerebrovascular aneurysm surgery is safe and effective.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 04/2014; 21(8). DOI:10.1016/j.jocn.2014.02.006 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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