Atomoxetine treatment in children and adolescents with ADHD and comorbid tic disorders
ABSTRACT To test the hypothesis that atomoxetine does not significantly worsen tic severity relative to placebo in children and adolescents with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid tic disorders.
Study subjects were 7 to 17 years old, met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria for ADHD, and had concurrent Tourette syndrome or chronic motor tic disorder. Patients were randomly assigned to double-blind treatment with placebo (n = 72) or atomoxetine (0.5 to 1.5 mg/kg/day, n = 76) for up to 18 weeks.
Atomoxetine treatment was associated with greater reduction of tic severity at endpoint relative to placebo, approaching significance on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale total score (-5.5 +/- 6.9 vs -3.0 +/- 8.7, p = 0.063) and Tic Symptom Self-Report total score (-4.7 +/- 6.5 vs -2.9 +/- 5.2, p = 0.095) and achieving significance on the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) tic/neurologic severity scale score (-0.7 +/- 1.2 vs -0.1 +/- 1.0, p = 0.002). Atomoxetine patients also showed greater improvement on the ADHD Rating Scale total score (-10.9 +/- 10.9 vs -4.9 +/- 10.3, p < 0.001) and CGI severity of ADHD/psychiatric symptoms scale score (-0.8 +/- 1.1 vs -0.3 +/- 1.0, p = 0.015). Discontinuation rates were not significantly different between treatment groups. Atomoxetine patients had greater increases in heart rate and decreases of body weight, and rates of treatment-emergent decreased appetite and nausea were higher. No other clinically relevant treatment differences were seen in any other vital sign, adverse event, or electrocardiographic or laboratory measures.
Atomoxetine did not exacerbate tic symptoms. Rather, there was some evidence of reduction in tic severity with a significant reduction of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Atomoxetine treatment appeared safe and well tolerated.
SourceAvailable from: Bungnyun Kim03/2011; 22(1). DOI:10.5765/JKACAP.2011.22.1.025
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ABSTRACT: Atomoxetine was first licensed to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents in the US in 2002. The aim of this paper is to comprehensively review subsequent publications addressing the efficacy of atomoxetine in 6- to 18-year-olds with ADHD. We identified 125 eligible papers using a predefined search strategy. Overall, these papers demonstrate that atomoxetine is an effective treatment for the core ADHD symptoms (effect sizes 0.6-1.3, vs. placebo, at 6-18 weeks), and improves functional outcomes and quality of life, in various pediatric populations with ADHD (i.e., males/females, patients with co-morbidities, children/adolescents, and with/without prior exposure to other ADHD medications). Initial responses to atomoxetine may be apparent within 1 week of treatment, but can take longer (median 23 days in a 6-week study; n = 72). Responses often build gradually over time, and may not be robust until after 3 months. A pooled analysis of six randomized placebo-controlled trials (n = 618) indicated that responses at 4 weeks may predict response at 6-9 weeks, although another pooled analysis of open-label data (n = 338) suggests that the probability of a robust response to atomoxetine [≥40 % decrease in ADHD-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) scores] may continue to increase beyond 6-9 weeks. Atomoxetine may demonstrate similar efficacy to methylphenidate, particularly immediate-release methylphenidate, although randomized controlled trials are generally limited by short durations (3-12 weeks). In conclusion, notwithstanding these positive findings, before initiating treatment with atomoxetine, it is important that the clinician sets appropriate expectations for the patient and their family with regard to the likelihood of a gradual response, which often builds over time.CNS Drugs 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s40263-014-0224-9 · 4.38 Impact Factor
Article: Tics and Tourette Syndrome.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
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