The Role of Vitamin D in Cancer Prevention

Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, 0631C, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0631, USA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 03/2006; 96(2):252-61. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2004.045260
Source: PubMed


Vitamin D status differs by latitude and race, with residents of the northeastern United States and individuals with more skin pigmentation being at increased risk of deficiency. A PubMed database search yielded 63 observational studies of vitamin D status in relation to cancer risk, including 30 of colon, 13 of breast, 26 of prostate, and 7 of ovarian cancer, and several that assessed the association of vitamin D receptor genotype with cancer risk. The majority of studies found a protective relationship between sufficient vitamin D status and lower risk of cancer. The evidence suggests that efforts to improve vitamin D status, for example by vitamin D supplementation, could reduce cancer incidence and mortality at low cost, with few or no adverse effects.

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    • "The epidemiological association between vitamin D deficiency and high mortality rates extends beyond the abnormal mineral homeostasis that impairs bone mineralization due to high serum levels of PTH. In fact, vitamin D deficiency associates with an increased risk of hypertension, cardiovascular disease, infectious and autoimmune diseases, glucose intolerance, albuminuria, and cancer [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]. Clearly, adequate strategies for vitamin D supplementation could help attenuate the incidence of these disorders, as suggested by the recent meta-analysis on the efficacy of cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ), "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with a range of clinical disorders. To study the mechanisms involved and improve treatments, animal models are tremendously useful. Current vitamin D deficient rat models have important practical limitations, including time requirements when using, exclusively, a vitamin D deficient diet. More importantly, induction of hypovitaminosis D causes significant fluctuations in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and mineral levels, complicating the interpretation of study results. To overcome these shortcomings, we report the successful induction of vitamin D deficiency within three weeks, with stable serum PTH and minerals levels, in Wistar rats. We incorporated two additional manoeuvres compared to a conventional diet. Firstly, the vitamin D depleted diet is calcium (Ca) enriched, to attenuate the development of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Secondly, six intraperitoneal injections of paricalcitol during the first two weeks are given to induce the rapid degradation of circulating vitamin D metabolites. After three weeks, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) levels had dropped below detection limits, with unchanged serum PTH, Ca, and phosphate (P) levels. Therefore, this model provides a useful tool to examine the sole effect of hypovitaminosis D, in a wide range of research settings, without confounding changes in PTH, Ca, and P.
    BioMed Research International 03/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1155/2015/604275 · 2.71 Impact Factor
    • "Providing patients with advice that balances enough sun exposure to achieve adequate vitamin D status alongside the sun protection message is challenging and little guidance for GPs is currently available. There is evidence from general practice in Germany, Australia and New Zealand that indicates there are gaps in GP knowledge of vitamin D, that GPs are providing patients with advice that is not recommended, and that vitamin D testing rates may be inappropriately high [6] [9] [10]. In addition, we were unable to identify any published reports of existing vitamin D and sun protection education for GPs. "
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    ABSTRACT: Online continuing medical education (CME) offers a number of advantages for physicians including flexibility with regards to location and timing of use. In order to effect physician practices and improve patient outcomes, it is important that the development of online CME is theory and evidence-based. This paper aims to describe the development of an online CME program for practising general practitioners (GPs) on vitamin D and sun health called "The ABC's of Vitamin D for GPs" using elements of design principles for physician-education web sites as a framework. The paper will also report the program's usability and acceptability pilot test results. The ABC's of Vitamin D program was developed following nine principles: needs assessment; evidence-based content development; multimodal program and modularisation; clinical cases; tailoring and interactivity; audit and feedback; credibility of the web site host; patient education materials; ease of use and navigation. Among the 20 GPs invited, acceptability and useability was tested with 12 GPs (60%) who agreed to participate and were interviewed following use of the program. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2013. An online CME program consisting of eight modules was constructed. Of the 12 participating GPs, most (n=11) reported that the program was clear and easy to understand, logical, easy to navigate, and took a reasonable amount of time (estimated between 1 and 3h) to complete. Eleven of 12 participants said they would use the program as an accredited CME activity and all participants indicated that the program was 'very or somewhat' likely to lead to changes in the advice patients are given. This study found that a theory and evidence based approach for the development of an online CME program for GPs was acceptable to users. Further research is needed to examine whether the online CME program is effective at changing GP practices and improving patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    International Journal of Medical Informatics 01/2015; 84(6). DOI:10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2015.01.006 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    • "Recent 20 years brought us constantly increasing number of epidemiological studies indicating that maintenance of the optimal level of 25-OH D 3 in the serum is simply essential for our health. Amongst others, vitamin D was found to be a protecting agent against multiple types of cancer (Garland et al., 2006), bacterial infections (Bikle, 2008); autoimmune (Munger et al., 2006) or cardiovascular diseases (Wang et al., 2008; Tukaj et al., 2012). It seems that vitamin D affects at least in part all major human function at the cellular, organ and whole body levels (Fig. 3). "
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    ABSTRACT: There is no doubt that vitamin D plays a crucial role in the maintenance of musculoskeletal system. But the function of this ancient molecule presumably ranges far beyond hormone-like regulation, as it could be generated by simple unicellular organisms. First, we are going to discuss the role of vitamin D as a global regulator of homeostasis from a historical perspective, but later we will focus on current views and its relevance to human physiology and pathology. Three milestones are defining the impact of vitamin D on science and humanity. Firstly, discovery that vitamin D is the cure for rickets, brought us supplementation programs and rapid irradiation of this devastating disease. Secondly, detail description of photoproduction of vitamin D, its subsequent metabolism and interaction with vitamin D receptor VDR, provided mechanistic background for future discoveries. Finally, recent large epidemiological studies provided indirect, but strong evidence that optimal level of vitamin D in serum has beneficial effects on our health and protects us from multiple diseases, including cancer. Furthermore, existence of alternative pathways of vitamin D metabolism and multiple intracellular targets broadens our understanding of its physiological activities and offers new and very promising tools for prophylactics and treatment of many diseases of civilization. Although vitamin D (and its derivatives) should not be regarded as a cure-all for every human disease, its beneficial effects on the human health have to be taken under consideration.
    Acta biochimica Polonica 12/2014; 61(4). · 1.15 Impact Factor
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