Effects of sleep deprivation on auditory and visual memory tasks

Department of Psychology, Stephen F. Austin State University, Nacogdoches, TX 75962, USA.
Perceptual and Motor Skills (Impact Factor: 0.66). 11/2005; 101(2):451-67. DOI: 10.2466/PMS.101.6.451-467
Source: PubMed


Probe recognition tasks have shown the effects of sleep deprivation following a full night of sleep loss. The current study investigated shorter durations of deprivation by testing 11 subjects for accuracy and response time every 2 hr. from 10 p.m. through 8 a.m. We replicated Elkin and Murray's auditory single-probe recognition task using the number triplets and added two visual tasks with number and shape triplets. Series of six stimuli were each followed by a probe, which was presented after 2.5 sec. as a short delay or 20 sec. as a long delay. Accuracy performance showed a significant decrease for the long delay beginning after 4 a.m. for the two visual tasks. Response times were significantly slower for the visual shapes task using the short delay. Visual tasks, especially shapes, may be more prone to disruption by sleep deprivation, given the visual information load and the briefness of iconic memory.

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    • "Research has shown that fatigue due to sleep deprivation can be one of the main reasons for fatal crashes and highway accidents for drivers [1]. Communication skills and memory are affected while attention and vigilance can be reduced to 50% [2], [3]. Under sleepy conditions the driver is not able to respond effectively since his attention is decreased and he has a reduced decision-making capability [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Heart Rate Variability (HRV) reflects the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. Slower HRV rhythms (LF) indicate increased sympathetic and/or lower vagal activity, wakefulness characteristics, while faster HRV rhythms (HF) indicate lower sympathetic and/or increased parasympathetic and vagal activity, sleepy characteristics. In this work we demonstrate that power spectral analysis of drivers' heart rate can report driving errors caused by sleepiness. Furthermore, variation of Fractal Dimension (FD) can aid significant information for the assessment of the driving situation. ECG and EEG data were collected from sleep-deprived subjects exposed to real field driving conditions. A lower ratio of low frequency to high frequency components (LF/HF), and lower LF values were reported on the occurrence of driving errors.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 02/2008; 2008:2566-9. DOI:10.1109/IEMBS.2008.4649724
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    • "Sleep deprivation impairs visuomotor performance, which is measured with tasks of digit symbol substitution, letter cancellation, trail-making or maze tracing (Table 1). It is believed that visual tasks would be especially vulnerable to sleep loss because iconic memory has short duration and limited capacity (Raidy and Scharff 2005). Another suggestion is that SD impedes engagement of spatial attention, which can be observed as impairments in saccadic eye movements (Bocca and Denise 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Today, prolonged wakefulness is a widespread phenomenon. Nevertheless, in the field of sleep and wakefulness, several unanswered questions remain. Prolonged wakefulness can be due to acute total sleep deprivation (SD) or to chronic partial sleep restriction. Although the latter is more common in everyday life, the effects of total SD have been examined more thoroughly. Both total and partial SD induce adverse changes in cognitive performance. First and foremost, total SD impairs attention and working memory, but it also affects other functions, such as long-term memory and decision-making. Partial SD is found to influence attention, especially vigilance. Studies on its effects on more demanding cognitive functions are lacking. Coping with SD depends on several factors, especially aging and gender. Also interindividual differences in responses are substantial. In addition to coping with SD, recovering from it also deserves attention. Cognitive recovery processes, although insufficiently studied, seem to be more demanding in partial sleep restriction than in total SD.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 11/2007; 3(5):553-67. · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    • "leep loss and disturbed sleep can result in impaired performance [1]. Sleep deprivation can reduce attention and vigilance by 50%, decision-making ability [2], communication skills [3], and memory [4]. The most sensitive tasks are those, which are long and monotonous, such as driving, which become very vulnerable to the effects of sleep deprivation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Driver sleepiness due to sleep deprivation is a causative factor in 1% to 3% of all motor vehicle crashes. In recent studies, the importance of developing driver fatigue countermeasure devices has been stressed, in order to help prevent driving accidents and errors. Although numerous physiological indicators are available to describe an individual's level of alertness, the EEG signal has been shown to be one of the most predictive and reliable, since it is a direct measure of brain activity. In the present study, multichannel EEG data that were collected from 20 sleep-deprived subjects during real environmental conditions of driving are presented for the first time. EEG data's annotation made by two independent Medical Doctors revealed an increase of slowing activity and an acute increase of the alpha waves 5-10 seconds before driving events. From the EEG data that were collected, the Relative Band Ratio (RBR) of the EEG frequency bands, the Shannon Entropy, and the Kullback-Leibler (KL) Entropy were estimated for each one second segment. The mean values of these measurements were estimated for 5 minutes periods. Analysis revealed a significant increase of alpha waves relevant band ratios (RBR), a decrease of gamma waves RBR, and a significant decrease of KL entropy when the first and the last 5-min periods were compared. A rapid decrease of both Shannon and K-L entropies was observed just before the driving events. Conclusively, EEG can assess effectively the brain activity alterations that occur a few seconds before sleeping/drowsiness events in driving, and its quantitative measurements can be used as potential sleepiness indicators for future development of driver fatigue countermeasure devices.
    Conference proceedings: ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Conference 02/2006; 1:6201-4. DOI:10.1109/IEMBS.2006.259614
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