Although hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) plays a major role in the prevention of myocardial ischemia, the temporal and spatial patterns of expression of HIF-1alpha in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion are not well known. This study examined the role of HIF-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in myocardial ischemia-reperfusion.
Adult Wistar rats were studied after ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) for 30 min and then after reperfusion. HIF-1alpha and VEGF were measured immediately after relief of occlusion and at 30 min, 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after reperfusion. HIF-1alpha and VEGF proteins were also measured 6 h after permanent occlusion of the LAD.
HIF-1alpha and VEGF mRNA increased 1.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively, immediately after relief of occlusion and reached a maximum of 4.3- and 2.3-fold, respectively, at 3 h after reperfusion and remained elevated up to 24 h. HIF-1alpha and VEGF proteins increased immediately after relief of ischemia. HIF-1alpha protein significantly increased from 0.5 h to 24 h after reperfusion and VEGF protein significantly increased from 1 h to 6 h after reperfusion compared to the sham control. Administration of HIF-1alpha antisense oligonucleotide before ligation of the LAD significantly inhibited VEGF protein expression induced by ischemia-reperfusion. Immunohistochemical study showed increased immunoreactivity of HIF-1alpha and VEGF in the jeopardized myocardium after ischemia-reperfusion. HIF-1alpha and VEGF proteins were increased at 6 h after permanent occlusion of the LAD.
This study demonstrated that HIF-1alpha and VEGF were co-induced in a temporal and spatial pattern after ischemia-reperfusion in the rat ventricular myocardium.
"VEGF is a key modulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in physiological and pathological conditions. VEGF is a HIF-dependent gene, which is important in I/R because of regulating collateral vessel development , . In this study, we found that temporary ischaemia increased expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, and after a longer time of reperfusion, HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA decreased to basal level, but l-THP increased the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA levels. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: l-Tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) is an active ingredients of Corydalis yanhusuo W.T. Wang, which protects against acute global cerebral ischaemia-reperfusion injury. In this study, we show that l-THP is cardioprotective in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury and examined the mechanism. Rats were treated with l-THP (0, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg b.w.) for 20 min before occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery and subjected to myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (30 min/6 h). Compared with vehicle-treated animals, the infarct area/risk area (IA/RA) of l-THP (20, 40 mg/kg b.w.) treated rats was reduced, whilst l-THP (10 mg/kg b.w.) had no significant effect. Cardiac function was improved in l-THP-treated rats whilst plasma creatine kinase activity declined. Following treatment with l-THP (20 mg/kg b.w.), subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85, serine(473) phosphorylation of Akt and serine(1177) phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) increased in myocardium, whilst expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) decreased. However, the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF were increased in I(30 min)R(6 h), but decreased to normal level in I(30 min)R(24 h), while treatment with l-THP (20 mg/kg b.w.) enhanced the levels of these two genes in I(30 min)R(24 h). Production of NO in myocardium and plasma, activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in plasma and the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in myocardium were decreased by l-THP. TUNEL assay revealed that l-THP (20 mg/kg b.w.) reduced apoptosis in myocardium. Thus, we show that l-THP activates the PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO pathway and increases expression of HIF-1α and VEGF, whilst depressing iNOS-derived NO production in myocardium. This effect may decrease the accumulation of inflammatory factors, including TNF-α and MPO, and lessen the extent of apoptosis, therefore contributing to the cardioprotective effects of l-THP in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury.
PLoS ONE 06/2012; 7(6):e38627. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0038627 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"Although experimental in vivo ischemia most commonly involves mono-vasal occlusion, very few investigations have been addressed to comparative analysis on tissues from different LV regions [9,11-13], as most reports on small animal models analyzed the total or partial left ventricular tissue [24-26] or even both ventricles combined . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Changes in cardiac gene expression due to myocardial injury are usually assessed in whole heart tissue. However, as the heart is a heterogeneous system, spatial and temporal heterogeneity is expected in gene expression.
In an ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) rat model we evaluated gene expression of mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic superoxide dismutase (MnSod, Cu-ZnSod) and thioredoxin reductase (trxr1) upon short (4 h) and long (72 h) reperfusion times in the right ventricle (RV), and in the ischemic/reperfused (IRR) and the remote region (RR) of the left ventricle. Gene expression was assessed by Real-time reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In order to select most stable reference genes suitable for normalization purposes, in each myocardial region we tested nine putative reference genes by geNorm analysis. The genes investigated were: Actin beta (actb), Glyceraldehyde-3-P-dehydrogenase (gapdh), Ribosomal protein L13A (rpl13a), Tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (ywhaz), Beta-glucuronidase (gusb), Hypoxanthine guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (hprt), TATA binding box protein (tbp), Hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs), Polyadenylate-binding protein 1 (papbn1). According to our findings, most stable reference genes in the RV and RR were hmbs/hprt and hmbs/tbp/hprt respectively. In the IRR, six reference genes were recommended for normalization purposes; however, in view of experimental feasibility limitations, target gene expression could be normalized against the three most stable reference genes (ywhaz/pabp/hmbs) without loss of sensitivity. In all cases MnSod and Cu-ZnSod expression decreased upon long reperfusion, the former in all myocardial regions and the latter in IRR alone. trxr1 expression did not vary.
This study provides a validation of reference genes in the RV and in the anterior and posterior wall of the LV of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion model and shows that gene expression should be assessed separately in each region.
BMC Research Notes 02/2012; 5(1):124. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-5-124
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanical stress increases myocardial myostatin expression. However, the expression of myostatin in chronic heart failure resulting from volume-overload and after treatment with beta-blockers is little known. The authors hypothesize that myostatin plays a role in the failing myocardium because of volume-overload.
Aorto-caval shunt was created over a 4-week period in adult Sprague-Dawley rats to induce volume-overload heart failure.
Heart weight and body weight ratio significantly increased after shunting. The left ventricular end-diastolic dimension also significantly increased. Treatment with carvedilol in the shunt group reversed the increase in heart weight and ventricular dimension to the baseline values. Myocardial and skeletal myostatin proteins were up-regulated in the shunt group. The mRNA of myocardial myostatin also increased in the shunt group. Treatment with carvedilol reversed both protein and mRNA of myocardial myostatin to the baseline values. Treatment with N-acetylcysteine and doxazosin partially decreased myostatin mRNA and protein expression as compared with the shunt group. Carvedilol normalized the increased immunohistochemical labelling of myocardial myostatin in the shunt group.
Myocardial myostatin mRNA and protein expression were up-regulated in the rat model of volume-overload heart failure. Treatment with carvedilol is associated with a limitation of increased myostatin expression in the failing ventricular myocardium.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation 11/2006; 36(10):713-9. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2362.2006.01718.x · 2.73 Impact Factor
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