Intracranial pressure monitoring and lumbar puncture after endoscopic third ventriculostomy in children.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to analyze changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) after endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) performed in children affected by noncommunicating hydrocephalus.
ICP was continuously recorded for an average of 7 days in 64 children who underwent 68 ETVs for obstructive triventricular hydrocephalus of various etiology. In the first group (44 children), ETV was performed as the primary treatment; in the second group (20 children), the patients presented with shunt malfunction and underwent ETV and shunt removal. Three of the patients in the second group were reoperated for obstruction of the stoma: two were reoperated once and one was reoperated twice.
ICP changes after ETV were not homogeneous and varied according to etiology: the highest values were observed in patients affected by posterior fossa tumors and the lowest values were seen in patients operated on during shunt malfunction and who had their shunt removed. After 31 procedures (45.6%), ICP remained normal (< 20 mmHg) for the entire duration of the monitoring. After 37 procedures (54.5%), ICP was persistently high on Day 1 (mean, 29.7) and decreased very slowly in the subsequent days, remaining high for 2-9 days (mean, 4.5). After 20 of the 37 procedures with high postoperative ICP, patients presented symptoms of intracranial hypertension that resolved, in most of the cases, with one or two lumbar punctures. Lumbar puncture was noted to be effective in bringing about fast normalization of the ICP and resolution of the symptoms. In 13 patients (19.1%), ETV failed and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was implanted. After four procedures, the stoma obstructed and the patients were treated, reopening the stoma. Postoperative ICP was not statistically significant higher in the patients in whom ETV failed.
The high ICP observed in a group of patients in the early postoperative days is probably related to the slow permeation of the subarachnoid spaces by the cerebrospinal fluid flowing out of the third ventriculostomy. Management of intracranial hypertension after ETV remains a matter of controversy. The role of the lumbar puncture in the faster normalization of the ICP is examined in this article. By increasing the compliance and the buffering capacities of the spinal subarachnoid spaces, it probably decreases the cerebrospinal fluid outflow resistance from the ventricular system, facilitating the decrease of the ventricular volume and allowing faster permeation of the intracranial subarachnoid spaces. High postoperative ICP can account for persistent symptoms of intracranial hypertension and ventricular dilatation on computed tomographic scans after third ventriculostomy. A cycle of one to three lumbar punctures should always be performed in patients who remain symptomatic and who show increasing ventricular dilatation after ETV, before ETV is assumed to have failed and an extracranial cerebrospinal fluid shunt is implanted.
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ABSTRACT: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is widely used as an alternative technique for hydrocephalus treatment. ETV success or failure may be influenced by numerous factors. In this study, we have analyzed preoperative and intraoperative risk factors and suggest an intraoperative scale to predict etV failure. Fifty-one patients (27 adults and 24 children) underwent an etV at Carlos Haya University Hospital, Malaga. Intraoperative video records were assessed and the following intraoperative findings were recorded: (1) abnormal ventricular anatomy, (2) intraoperative incident, (3) Liliequist membrane opening in a second endoscopic maneuver, (4) thickened or scarred membranes in the subarachnoid space, (5) absence or "weakness" of pulsation of third ventricle floor at etV completion, and (6) floppy premammillary membrane that needs edge coagulation. An intraoperative scale ranging from 0 to 6 points was performed. A significant relation was found between a higher result on the prognosis scale and etV failure (p < 0.0001). An absence or weakness of pulsation of the third ventricle floor at etV completion was significantly related to etV failure (p < 0.0001). The presence of thickened or scarred membranes in the subarachnoid space was significantly related to etV failure (p < 0.04) as well as the Liliequist membrane opening in a second endoscopic maneuver (p < 0.008). Intraoperative factors should be taken into account for prediction of etV success. More studies with larger case series are needed to determine the influence of all intraoperative factors over etV success.Neurosurgical Review 08/2013; · 1.97 Impact Factor
Article: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is considered as a treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. It is indicated in hydrocephalus secondary to congenital aqueductal stenosis, posterior third ventricle tumor, cerebellar infarct, Dandy-Walker malformation, vein of Galen aneurism, syringomyelia with or without Chiari malformation type I, intraventricular hematoma, post infective, normal pressure hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, multiloculated hydrocephalus, encephalocele, posterior fossa tumor and craniosynostosis. It is also indicated in block shunt or slit ventricle syndrome. Proper Pre-operative imaging for detailed assessment of the posterior communicating arteries distance from mid line, presence or absence of Liliequist membrane or other membranes, located in the prepontine cistern is useful. Measurement of lumbar elastance and resistance can predict patency of cranial subarachnoid space and complex hydrocephalus, which decides an ultimate outcome. Water jet dissection is an effective technique of ETV in thick floor. Ultrasonic contact probe can be useful in selected patients. Intra-operative ventriculo-stomography could help in confirming the adequacy of endoscopic procedure, thereby facilitating the need for shunt. Intraoperative observations of the patent aqueduct and prepontine cistern scarring are predictors of the risk of ETV failure. Such patients may be considered for shunt surgery. Magnetic resonance ventriculography and cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging are effective in assessing subarachnoid space and stoma patency after ETV. Proper case selection, post-operative care including monitoring of ICP and need for external ventricular drain, repeated lumbar puncture and CSF drainage, Ommaya reservoir in selected patients could help to increase success rate and reduce complications. Most of the complications develop in an early post-operative, but fatal complications can develop late which indicate an importance of long term follow up.Journal of neurosciences in rural practice. 05/2012; 3(2):163-73.
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ABSTRACT: Neuroendoscopy has been well established in the treatment of many neurological and neurosurgical diseases. Especially its application in occlusive hydrocephalus to restore a physiological cerebrospinal fluid circulation has been extensively examined in the past. Although such procedures are believed to be safe and effective, complication as well as failure rates up to 20 % have been described pointing to the importance of long-term postoperative care. Therefore, different and partly invasive procedures as ventricular drain insertions or complex cranial imaging methods have been proposed; however, associated pitfalls and restrictions often limited their prognostic value and long-term benefit. An operative technique combining endoscopic third ventriculostomy and telemetric increased intracranial pressure monitoring has now been developed to optimize the postoperative care management. The main intention is to provide sufficient brain pressure data for long-term observation and early recognition of endoscopy failures and complications. The new operative technique was applied in a series with 24 patients suffering from occlusive hydrocephalus. Surgical technique and future perspectives are presented.Child s Nervous System 08/2013; · 1.24 Impact Factor