Article

Lactobacillus vaginal microbiota of women attending a reproductive health care service in Benin City, Nigeria

Canadian Research & Development Centre for Probiotic, Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario, Canada.
Sex Transm Dis (Impact Factor: 2.75). 02/2006; 33(1):59-62. DOI: 10.1097/01.olq.0000175367.15559.c4
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine whether Lactobacillus species found in African women differ substantially to those of white decent, described in previous studies. The vaginal microbiota play an important role in female health, and when the naturally dominant lactobacilli are displaced resulting in bacterial vaginosis (BV), the host is more at risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV.
Vaginal samples were collected from 241 healthy, premenopausal Nigerian women, which were then Gram-stained for Nugent scoring. Microbial DNA was extracted, amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Lactobacillus primers, and processed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Lactobacillus species were identified by DNA sequencing and BLAST algorithm.
Of the samples, 207 (85.8%) had PCR products for lactobacilli, whereas 34 (14.2%) showed absence of lactobacilli, which correlated to the BV Nugent scores. On sequencing of amplicons, 149 subjects (72%) had sequence homologies to lactobacilli. Most women (64%) were colonized by L. iners as the predominant strain, similar to previous findings in Canadian and Swedish women. L. gasseri was found in 7.3% samples, followed by L. plantarum, L. suntoryeus, L. crispatus, L. rhamnosus, and other species.
The findings indicate that even with geographic, racial, and other differences, the predominant vaginal Lactobacillus species is similar to species in women from Northern countries.

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Available from: Kingsley C Anukam, Feb 20, 2014
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    • "Thinning of the vaginal mucus layer may also increase opportunities for HIV to access target cells in underlying mucosa. Given a preeminent ecological position in the vaginal environment [56], colonization of the female genital tract by Lactobacillus species is increasingly recognized as critical for overall vaginal health and resistance to infection by bacterial and viral pathogens, including HIV [57]. Under the influence of estrogen, vaginal epithelial cells store glycogen, which is hydrolysed to glucose and metabolized by vaginal bacteria [58]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Immune activation is increasingly recognized as a critical element of HIV infection and pathogenesis, causing expansion of virus founder populations at the mucosal port of entry and eventual exhaustion of cellular immune effectors. HIV susceptibility is well known to be influenced by concurrent sexually transmitted infections; however, the role of commensal vaginal microbiota is poorly characterized. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a risk factor for HIV acquisition in studies worldwide; however, the etiology of BV remains enigmatic, and the mechanisms by which BV increases HIV susceptibility are not fully defined. A model of how vaginal microbiota influences HIV transmission is considered in the context of a well-established cohort of HIV-exposed seronegative (HESN) commercial sex workers (CSW) in Nairobi, Kenya, many of whom have increased levels of anti-inflammatory factors in vaginal secretions and reduced peripheral immune activation (immune quiescence). Elucidation of the relationship between complex microbial communities and inflammatory mucosal responses underlying HIV infection should be a priority for future prevention-focussed research.
    03/2012; 2012:131243. DOI:10.1155/2012/131243
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    • "In the complex vaginal environment, bacteria of the lactobacilli group (10 7 –10 8 CFU g -1 of vaginal fluid) are the predominant microorganisms in healthy pre-menopausal women and play an important protective role by limiting growth of pathogenic microorganisms (Reid, 2005; Anukam et al., 2006; Pascual et al., 2008a). When lactobacilli are reduced, eliminated or replaced by pathogenic species, the host has an increased susceptibility to urinary tract infections (UTIs), genital tract infections (GTIs), bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), and infection by N. gonorrhoeae or Trichomonas vaginalis (Reid et al, 2003; Klebanoff et al., 2004, Ruíz et al., 2009) The use of probiotics per se and mainly lactobacilli has received greater attention as an alternative, inexpensive and natural remedy to restore and maintain the genitourinary health (Reid, 2001a,c). "
    Urinary Tract Infections, 09/2011; , ISBN: 978-953-307-757-4
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    • "However, an independent study reveals that both species were not frequently isolated from Mexican population (Castro-Escarpulli G., personal communication). Also, culture independent studies have not detected L. jensenii [22], and relevant differences in the composition of vaginal microbial communities, particularly Lactobacillus spp., have been found in healthy Caucasian and black women [23]. Although few data have been reported in this area, vaginal Lactobacillus spp. "
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