Kinase-dependent differentiation of a retinal ganglion cell precursor.
ABSTRACT Cell lines are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease pathophysiology. Yet extrapolation of results with cell lines to neurodegenerative disorders is difficult because they are mitotic and usually have other non-neuronal properties. The RGC-5 cell line has many features of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Despite its expression of Thy-1 and NMDA receptors, as found in primary RGCs, this line's ability to proliferate and non-neuronal appearance differentiate it from other central neurons, complicating its use for the study of neuronal survival, electrophysiology, or neurite extension.
A method was identified for differentiating RGC-5 cells using the nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine. Cultures were treated with 100 nM to 3.16 muM staurosporine and assessed for a variety of differentiation markers.
Differentiated RGC-5 cells expressed numerous neuronal properties, including arrest of proliferation without inducing apoptosis, induction of a neuronal morphology, upregulation of neuronal markers, and establishment of outward rectifying channels. Differentiation was not dependent on a single kinase-dependent pathway, based on profiling multiple kinase phosphorylation targets and attempts to replicate differentiation with multiple specific kinase inhibitors.
This method for producing an RGC-like cell from a proliferating cell line facilitates the following previously impractical techniques: high-throughput screening for agents that are neuroprotective or affect ionic channels; straightforward transduction of gene expression in central neurons by nonviral transfection techniques, including production of stable transfectants; biochemical and other assays of pure RGC-like cells without purification on the basis of cell-surface antigens or anatomic location.
SourceAvailable from: Samuel Shaomin Zhang[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the protective effects of tetrandrine (Tet) on murine ischemia-injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). For this, we used serum deprivation cell model, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC-5 cell death models, and staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 in vitro. We also investigated cell survival of purified primary-cultured RGCs treated with Tet. An in vivo retinal ischemia/reperfusion model was used to examine RGC survival after Tet administration 1 day before ischemia. We found that Tet affected RGC-5 survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Compared to dimethyl sulfoxide treatment, Tet increased the numbers of RGC-5 cells by 30% at 72 hours. After 48 hours, Tet protected staurosporine-induced RGC-5 cells from serum deprivation-induced cell death and significantly increased the relative number of cells cultured with 1 mM H2O2 (P<0.01). Several concentrations of Tet significantly prevented 25-mM-glutamate-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Tet also increased primary RGC survival after 72 and 96 hours. Tet administration (10 μM, 2 μL) 1 day before retinal ischemia showed RGC layer loss (greater survival), which was less than those in groups with phosphate-buffered saline intravitreal injection plus ischemia in the central (P=0.005, n=6), middle (P=0.018, n=6), and peripheral (P=0.017, n=6) parts of the retina. Thus, Tet conferred protective effects on serum deprivation models of staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 cells and primary cultured murine RGCs. Furthermore, Tet showed greater in vivo protective effects on RGCs 1 day after ischemia. Tet and ciliary neurotrophic factor maintained the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) of primary cultured RGCs and inhibited the expression of activated caspase-3 and bcl-2 in ischemia/reperfusion-insult retinas.Drug Design, Development and Therapy 03/2014; 8:327-39. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S55407 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The immortalized RGC-5 cell line has been widely used as a cell culture model to study the neurobiology of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). The cells were originally introduced as derived from rat RGC showing expression of various neuronal markers, in particular the RGC-characteristic proteins Brn3 and Thy1. Recent data gave rise to concerns regarding the origin and nature of the cells. RGC-5 cells were identified to be of mouse origin and their expression of RGC characteristics was questioned by some laboratories. This article summarizes the available data on the properties of RGC-5, discusses common protocols for their differentiation and is aimed at providing researchers some guidelines on the benefits and limitations of RGC-5 for research.Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2014; 801:145-54. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4614-3209-8_19 · 2.01 Impact Factor