Cell lines are frequently used to elucidate mechanisms of disease pathophysiology. Yet extrapolation of results with cell lines to neurodegenerative disorders is difficult because they are mitotic and usually have other non-neuronal properties. The RGC-5 cell line has many features of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Despite its expression of Thy-1 and NMDA receptors, as found in primary RGCs, this line's ability to proliferate and non-neuronal appearance differentiate it from other central neurons, complicating its use for the study of neuronal survival, electrophysiology, or neurite extension.
A method was identified for differentiating RGC-5 cells using the nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine. Cultures were treated with 100 nM to 3.16 muM staurosporine and assessed for a variety of differentiation markers.
Differentiated RGC-5 cells expressed numerous neuronal properties, including arrest of proliferation without inducing apoptosis, induction of a neuronal morphology, upregulation of neuronal markers, and establishment of outward rectifying channels. Differentiation was not dependent on a single kinase-dependent pathway, based on profiling multiple kinase phosphorylation targets and attempts to replicate differentiation with multiple specific kinase inhibitors.
This method for producing an RGC-like cell from a proliferating cell line facilitates the following previously impractical techniques: high-throughput screening for agents that are neuroprotective or affect ionic channels; straightforward transduction of gene expression in central neurons by nonviral transfection techniques, including production of stable transfectants; biochemical and other assays of pure RGC-like cells without purification on the basis of cell-surface antigens or anatomic location.
"A wide range of Tet concentrations (10 nM to 1 μM) promoted both proliferating and SSP-induced neuron-like RGC-5 cell survival following serum deprivation, glutamate excitotoxicity, and H2O2 treatment. In this study, the SSP-differentiated RGC-5 cells developed into highly branched cells that morphologically resembled cultured RGCs, which is consistent with previously reported results.35 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the protective effects of tetrandrine (Tet) on murine ischemia-injured retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). For this, we used serum deprivation cell model, glutamate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced RGC-5 cell death models, and staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 in vitro. We also investigated cell survival of purified primary-cultured RGCs treated with Tet. An in vivo retinal ischemia/reperfusion model was used to examine RGC survival after Tet administration 1 day before ischemia. We found that Tet affected RGC-5 survival in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Compared to dimethyl sulfoxide treatment, Tet increased the numbers of RGC-5 cells by 30% at 72 hours. After 48 hours, Tet protected staurosporine-induced RGC-5 cells from serum deprivation-induced cell death and significantly increased the relative number of cells cultured with 1 mM H2O2 (P<0.01). Several concentrations of Tet significantly prevented 25-mM-glutamate-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Tet also increased primary RGC survival after 72 and 96 hours. Tet administration (10 μM, 2 μL) 1 day before retinal ischemia showed RGC layer loss (greater survival), which was less than those in groups with phosphate-buffered saline intravitreal injection plus ischemia in the central (P=0.005, n=6), middle (P=0.018, n=6), and peripheral (P=0.017, n=6) parts of the retina. Thus, Tet conferred protective effects on serum deprivation models of staurosporine-differentiated neuron-like RGC-5 cells and primary cultured murine RGCs. Furthermore, Tet showed greater in vivo protective effects on RGCs 1 day after ischemia. Tet and ciliary neurotrophic factor maintained the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) of primary cultured RGCs and inhibited the expression of activated caspase-3 and bcl-2 in ischemia/reperfusion-insult retinas.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 03/2014; 8:327-39. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S55407 · 3.03 Impact Factor
"We demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of repeated intravitreal injection of resveratrol at 2 weeks after ONT. Using the differentiated RGC-5 cells, which have many of the morphological, postmitotic, electrophysiological, and antigenic properties of mature RGCs , we also found that resveratrol increased cell viability under serum-deprived conditions as in the in vitro model of trophic-support interruption. We have investigated the mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol through in vivo and in vitro experiments. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol in an optic nerve transection (ONT) model and to identify the neuroprotective mechanism of resveratrol in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs).
ONT and retrograde labeling were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. Various concentrations of resveratrol were injected intravitreally immediately after ONT. The number of labeled RGCs was determined at 1 and 2 weeks after ONT. The effect of resveratrol and sirtinol (a sirtuin 1 inhibitor) co-injection was investigated. RGC-5 cells were cultured and treated with staurosporine to induce differentiation. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was performed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on RGC-5 cell survival under serum-free conditions. RGC-5 cells were cultured with sirtinol to investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of resveratrol.
A dose-response relationship was observed between resveratrol and RGC survival. A single intravitreal injection of resveratrol was neuroprotective in RGCs at 1 week after ONT (p<0.01). Repeated intravitreal injection of resveratrol showed a neuroprotective effect at 2 weeks after ONT (p<0.01). However, co-injection of resveratrol and sirtinol diminished the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol (p<0.05). The neuroprotective effect of resveratrol was observed in RGC-5 cells under serum-free conditions, and sirtinol diminished this neuroprotective effect.
Resveratrol exerts its neuroprotective effect on RGCs via activation of the sirtuin 1 pathway in an ONT model. This finding demonstrates the therapeutic potential of resveratrol in treating optic nerve diseases.
"After 24 h, cells were observed for their morphological features. Their somas became rounder and neurites gradually increased, similar to prior studies (Frassetto et al., 2006). The cells contacted each other with multiple long neurites, features of neuronal differentiation (Figure 3A). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Activation of SIRT1, an NAD+-dependent deacetylase, prevents retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in optic neuritis, an inflammatory demyelinating optic nerve disease. While SIRT1 deacetylates numerous protein targets, downstream mechanisms of SIRT1 activation mediating this neuroprotective effect are unknown. SIRT1 increases mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative stress in muscle and other cells, and oxidative stress occurs in neuronal degeneration. We examined whether SIRT1 activators reduce oxidative stress and promote mitochondrial function in neuronal cells. Oxidative stress, marked by reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, was induced in RGC-5 cells by serum deprivation, or addition of doxorubicin or hydrogen peroxide, and resulted in significant cell loss. SIRT1 activators resveratrol (RSV) and SRTAW04 reduced ROS levels and promoted cell survival in RGC-5 cells as well as primary RGC cultures. Effects were blocked by SIRT1 siRNA. SIRT1 activators also increased expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a mitochondrial enzyme, and promoted deacetylation of PGC-1α, a co-enzyme involved in mitochondrial function. Results show SIRT1 activators prevent cell loss by reducing oxidative stress and promoting mitochondrial function in a neuronal cell line. Results suggest SIRT1 activators can mediate neuroprotective effects during optic neuritis by these mechanisms, and they have the potential to preserve neurons in other neurodegenerative diseases that involve oxidative stress.
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