Review of the Literature on Major Mental Disorders in Adult Patients With Mitochondrial Diseases
ABSTRACT Mitochondria are intracellular organelles crucial to the production cellular energy. Mitochondrial disease results from a malfunction in this biochemical cascade. These disorders can affect any organ system, producing diverse signs and symptoms, including psychiatric ones. Several authors argue that mitochondrial dysfunction is related to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Also, the authors retrieved 19 case reports that describe patients with mitochondrial diseases and psychiatric disorders. Most of these patients have psychiatric presentations that preceded the diagnosis of mitochondrial disease. The most common physical findings are fatigue, muscle weakness with or without atrophy, and hearing loss.
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ABSTRACT: The phenothiazinium compound, methylene blue (MB), possesses diverse pharmacological actions and is attracting attention for the treatment of bipolar disorder and Alzheimer's disease. MB acts on both monoamine oxidase (MAO) and the nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway, and possesses antidepressant activity in rodents. The goal of this study was to synthesise a structural analogue of MB, ethylthioninium chloride (ETC), and to evaluate the effects of the structural changes on the MAO inhibitory and antidepressant properties of MB. This study also investigated the antidepressant properties of azure B, the major metabolite of MB, versus MB and imipramine as active comparators.Life Sciences 11/2014; 117(2). DOI:10.1016/j.lfs.2014.10.005 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Major depression is a heterogeneous psychiatric disorder whose pathophysiology is not clearly established yet. Some studies have shown that oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the development of major depression. Since most depressed patients do not achieve complete remission of symptoms, new therapeutic alternatives are needed and omega-3 has been highlighted in this scenario. Therefore, we have investigated the effects of omega-3 on behavioral and biochemical parameters in rats submitted to chronic mild stress (CMS). Male Wistar rats were submitted to CMS for 40 days. After the CMS period, we administered a 500 mg/kg dose of omega-3 orally, once a day, for 7 days. The animals submitted to CMS presented anhedonia, had no significant weight gain, presented increased levels of lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation, and inhibition of complex I and IV activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The treatment with omega-3 did not reverse anhedonia; however, it reversed weight change, increased lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation levels, and partially reversed the inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. The findings support studies that state that major depression is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress, and that omega-3 supplementation could reverse some of these changes, probably due to its antioxidant properties.Metabolic Brain Disease 06/2014; DOI:10.1007/s11011-014-9577-5 · 2.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe brain disease that is associated with a significant risk for suicide. Recent studies indicate that altitude of residence significantly affects overall rate of completed suicide, and is associated with a higher incidence of depressive symptoms. Bipolar disorder has shown to be linked to mitochondrial dysfunction that may increase the severity of episodes. The present study used existing data sets to explore the hypothesis that altitude has a greater effect of suicide in BD, compared with other mental illnesses. The study utilized data extracted from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a surveillance system designed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC). Data were available for 16 states for the years 2005-2008, representing a total of 35,725 completed suicides in 922 U.S. counties. Random coefficient and logistic regression models in the SAS PROC MIXED procedure were used to estimate the effect of altitude on decedent's mental health diagnosis. Altitude was a significant, independent predictor of the altitude at which suicides occurred (F=8.28, p=0.004 and Wald chi-square=21.67, p<0.0001). Least squares means of altitude, independent of other variables, indicated that individuals with BD committed suicide at the greatest mean altitude. Moreover, the mean altitude at which suicides occurred in BD was significantly higher than in decedents whose mental health diagnosis was major depressive disorder (MDD), schizophrenia, or anxiety disorder. Identifying diagnosis-specific risk factors such as altitude may aid suicide prevention efforts, and provide important information for improving the clinical management of BD.Medical Hypotheses 01/2014; 82(3). DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2014.01.006 · 1.15 Impact Factor