Inactivation of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) by normal rabbit serum: implications for the role of the envelope protein VP28 in WSSV infection of shrimp.
ABSTRACT White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a highly pathogenic and prevalent virus affecting crustacea. A number of WSSV envelope proteins, including vp28, have been proposed to be involved in viral infectivity based on the ability of specific antibodies to attenuate WSSV-induced mortality in vivo. In the present study, a series of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies targeting vp28 were tested for their ability to neutralize WSSV infectivity, with the purpose of identifying epitopes potentially involved in vp28-mediated infection of shrimp. Surprisingly, when used as protein A-purified immunoglobulin, none of the antibodies tested were capable of inhibiting WSSV infectivity. This included one polyclonal preparation that has been previously shown to inactivate WSSV, when used as whole rabbit serum. Moreover, strong inactivation of WSSV by some rabbit sera was observed, in a manner independent of anti-vp28 antibodies. These results underscore the problems associated with using heterogeneous reagents (e.g. whole rabbit antiserum) in viral neutralization experiments aimed at defining proteins involved in infection by WSSV. In light of this, the potential of anti-vp28 antibodies to specifically neutralize WSSV should be reconsidered.
- Marine Biotechnology 04/2010; 13(4):585-6. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: From almost negligible amounts in 1970, the quantity of cultivated shrimp (~3 million metric tons in 2007) has risen to approach that of the capture fishery and it constitutes a vital source of export income for many countries. Despite this success, viral diseases along the way have caused billions of dollars of losses for shrimp farmers. Desire to reduce the losses to white spot syndrome virus in particular, has stimulated much research since 2000 on the shrimp response to viral pathogens at the molecular level. The objective of the work is to develop novel, practical methods for improved disease control. This review covers the background and limitations of the current work, baseline studies and studies on humoral responses, on binding between shrimp and viral structural proteins and on intracellular responses. It also includes discussion of several important phenomena (i.e., the quasi immune response, viral co-infections, viral sequences in the shrimp genome and persistent viral infections) for which little or no molecular information is currently available, but is much needed.Marine Biotechnology 08/2011; 13(4):587-607. · 3.15 Impact Factor
Article: Antiviral immunity in crustaceans.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Viral diseases of shrimp have caused negative effects on the economy in several countries in Asia, South America and America, where they have numerous shrimp culture industries. The studies on the immunity of shrimp and other crustaceans have mainly focused on general aspects of immunity and as a consequence little is known about the antiviral responses in crustaceans. The aim of this review is to update recent knowledge of innate immunity against viral infections in crustaceans. Several antiviral molecules have been isolated and characterized recently from decapods. Characterization and identification of these molecules might provide a promising strategy for protection and treatment of these viral diseases. In addition dsRNA-induced antiviral immunity is also included.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 03/2009; 27(2):79-88. · 2.96 Impact Factor